Handel bez pieniędzy
Trade without Money
Omówiono różne rodzaje transakcji realizowanych w ramach międzynarodowego handlu wymiennego, ich finansowanie, oraz rolę banków w tych transakcjach.
In the professional literature there are many definitions of compensative trade and methods of financing it. These different definitions can cause confusion in discussing compensative trade issues. Almost half of world commodity trade is made "without money". Thus there needs to be a systematic categorization of the definitions of compensative trade. In these transaction one must differentiate between classical barter transactions and counter-purchase arrangments (which is a typical compensative transaction). Counter-purchase transactions are also known as a clearing or a book-keeping barter since one needs money for their terminal financing. There are also compensative transactions called buy-backs. There are based on the resale of a part a commodity by a buyer who purchased machines and technologies from a seller. Compensative trade also refers to specific methods of financing-governmental credit assistance, letters of credit, switch, bridge-finance and preceding purchases. (original abstract)