Polska w okresie transformacji; rozwój i ograniczenia gospodarki
Poland during Transformation Period: Development and Constraints of Economy
Artykuł koncentruje się na warunkach rozwoju gospodarczego Polski, nie wchodząc w badania koniunkturalne i makroekonomiczne. Autor przedstawia takie czynniki, jak przekształcenia struktury społecznej, gospodarczej, mentalności ludzi oraz wpływu otoczenia międzynarodowego. Artykuł jest sumą refleksji o przemianach społeczno-gospodarczych opartych na badaniach prowadzonych w Łodzi oraz w regionie łódzkim.
According to some observers, Poland has already become a capitalist country. In reality, however, Poland is still in a transition period and it is only trying to put together appropriate elements of the economy into some system, which has dominated the entire world today. Trying to reconcile the strategies of multinational corporations with its own national strategies, Poland must find its "economic niche"; it must find specializations on foreign markets most profible for it promoting the possibly widest interindustrial co-operation. This is a condition for ensuring an indispensable autonomy of the entire production system, without which it is impossible to solve problems connected with transformations in the social sphere. Despite rapid and deep changes in the macroeconomic policy and in mentality, first of all of young people, the weaknesses of production structure are all the more important as they are intensified by speculative behaviours and attempts to make big money rapidly, which always happens at the cost of production sphere. Disturbing divisions can be observed within the social structure. Various types of enterprises begin to compete for very limited resources. The world of work witnesses a division into the unemployed and the others, into employees working legally and illegally, into those employed by foreign companies having access to a modern know-how and better possibilities and those working according to old methods, while the previous coexistence of the formal and informal sectors becomes more and more strained. Poland desiring to break away from its historical ties and join the European Union as a full-fledged member as a soon as possible is, in fact, being isolated. At the time when special zones of development or free trade are established in all parts of the world such isolation could be very disadvantageous. Hence, a chance and advantage for Poland would be co-operation of the three most advanced countries: Poland, Czech.(original abstract)