Konkurencyjność przedsiębiorstwa - koncepcje, pomiar, ocena i standaryzacja
Competitiveness of an Enterprise - Concepts, Measurements, Evaluation and Standardisation
Artykuł zawiera przegląd najważniejszych pojęć związanych z konkurencyjnością, metody oceny potencjału konkurencyjnego oraz międzynarodowe próby budowy uniwersalnych narzędzi pomiaru, oceny i standaryzacji potencjału konkurencyjnego przedsiębiorstw (nagrody jakości).
The article makes an attempt to systematise the concept of competitiveness. It is assumed that competitiveness means ability to reach and/or maintain competitive advantage, both at present and in the future. Competitive advantage consists of: the current competitive position of an enterprise and/or competitive potential determining the future situation of the enterprise. Competitive position is determined by competitiveness of the enterprise's domain and its potential. The competitiveness of potential and domain results from the fact that they fulfil the criteria of: adequacy, flexibility and effectiveness. The article also contains a review of the selected methods and instruments of measuring the enterprise's competitiveness, derived mainly from strategic analysis. Among them the authors mention: analysis of the experience curve, concept of the life cycle, portfolio model, method of key factors of success, SPACE and SWOT analyses. The article also presents the concept of M.E.Porter's value chain, the method off analysing key competence of an enterprise and strategic goals based on the approach suggested by G. Hamel and C.K. Prahalad. The authors mention some attempts to measure systematically the intangible assets, among them intellectual capital of the enterprise. Each of these methods is accompanied by comments on its usefulness for the assessment of competitiveness of an enterprise. The methods presented are characterised by a considerable cognitive value. However, they are not free from faults, among which the main one is a fragmentary approach to the analysed problem. A complex study of enterprises' competitiveness is assured by the schemes of organisation assessment used when granting international quality awards. The methods of evaluating the competitive position of an enterprise presented in this article, approved of by the Chapter of M. Baldridge's Prize, makes it possible to assess in a clear and simple way all the key areas of the