Filozoficzne aspekty kary śmierci w myśli Platona i św. Tomasza z Akwinu
Philosophical Aspects of Death Penalty in the Thought of Plato and Thomas Aquinas
Treść artykułu stanowią rozważania na temat filozoficznych aspektów kary śmierci. Autor koncentruje się na dorobku dwóch myślicieli, Platona i św. Tomasza z Akwinu, którzy jego zdaniem, reprezentując zbliżone pola badań z okresu zasadniczo pomijanego w dyskusjach nad karą śmierci, zaproponowali inne, nowe spojrzenie na teorię kary śmierci.
In keeping with its title the article deals with the problem of death penalty in the views of the two eminent thinkers. The starting points is the answer to the question about the advisability of dealing with the death penalty when, both in theory and practice in many countries, there is a tendency to restrict or eliminate the punishment in question. The author maintains that it is advisable to resume discussion sience it has been overly narrowed while two levels have not been sufficiently distinguished: that of the accepted principles (theory of punishment) and that of their application in particular cases. The two philosophers were chosen because a relatively narrowed period is usually focused upon, starting with the Enlightenment. The introductory part is followed by a discussion of the views on death penalty in Plato and Thomas Aquinas against the broader perspective of views on punishmnet in general and the relation between the individual and the community. In the former case emphasis is laid on interpretation problems (the problem of 'non-written sciences', anachronistic interpretation by Popper) in oredr to pass on to trying to show Plato's theory of punishment (or in the broader sense: of 'political' theory) as the development of Platonic anthropology. What seems essential is that Plato takes account of several goals of punishment, emphasising the ethical dimension (understood as eudemonistic rather than obligational). In the latter case the pattern is similar: after interpretation problems (reading of Thomas Aquinas in terms of deontological or nominalist categories alien to him) there is an attempt to show his views on death penalty in the context of views on punishment as such, referring to theology and relations between the individual and the community analysed from the standpoint of common good. The conclusion contains a short comparison of the conceptions. (original abstract)