Reformy pieniężne w Polsce w latach 1944-1950
Monetary Reforms in Poland in the Years 1944-1950
W artykule przedstawiono zarys problematyki dotyczącej przemian systemu pieniężnego Polski w początkowych latach sprawowania władzy przez komunistów po II wojnie światowej. W tym celu autor omówił, wpływającą na sytuację gospodarczą, wielowalutowość na ziemiach wyzwolonych w 1944 roku i skomentował dwie reformy pieniężne, pierwszą z 1945 roku i drugą z 28 października 1950 roku.
The fact of the existence of a number of currencies and a lack of a national currency forces the communist authorities in Poland to emit new monetary marks beginning with the end of August, 1944. For some time, the currencies used during the German occupation were left and these were the German marks, the "Cracow zloty" and the Russian rouble. They tried to find a way of spending a considerable amount of the monetary means simultaneusly checking the inflation. At the end of October 1944, the Germany marks were withdrawn from the area of the Białystok province. Exchange was limited to 300 marks per person. At the beginning of Janyary 1945, the "Cracow" banknotes which circulated on the liberated areas of the so-called Goverment General were exchanged. The physical persons could exchange up to 500 "Cracow" zlotys, while different instytutions and enterprises were treated in a fairly liberal manner. In February, 1945 the German marks and the occupation zloty were withdrawn from teh newly liberated areas. Industrial and commercial establishments and banks were not give the right to his exchange. Anther currency reform was conducted at the end of October 1950 in the face of increasing inflation. The relation between the new zlotys to the old ones was 3 to 100. The money was exchanged with no limitations as to the quantity. However, because the exchange was conducted in the proportion of 1 new zloty to 100 zloty, the people who hand money lost as much as 66 procent of its value. The currency reforms of the years 1944-1950 were very restrictive for the population, while giving the communist authorities a possibillity to realize some of the goals of their policy. (original abstract)