Instytucje ombudsmana w państwach UE
The Institution of Ombudsman in EU Member States
Wyjaśniono istotę instytucji ombudsmana. Przedstawiono genezę, ewolucję i rodzaje instytucji ombudsmana w państwach Unii Europejskiej.
The article focuses on the description of the institution of ombudsman in EU Member States. The first part of the article discusses the role of the office of the ombudsman and the opinions on the subject published in Poland and abroad. The second part presents the genesis of the institution of ombudsman, beginning with the ancient times up through the institutions preceding the first office of the ombudsman in Sweden. Above all, however, the second part of the article deals with the evolution of this institution in the EU Member States. Due to the fact that the institutions of ombudsman differ from country to country, the principle adopted here was to present them in chronological order, that is, according to the dates they were set up in particular countries - irrespective of the differences between them. Thus, the order of presentation of EU States, where the political system contains the institution of ombudsman, is as follows: Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Portugal, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Greece, Belgium and Luxembourg. In the third part of the article, the author describes the various types of institutions of ombudsman found in the EU. She distinguishes ombudsmen operating at national level exercising the general scope of powers (the classical ombudsman), specialised ombudsmen at national and local levels with general powers as well as specialised local ombudsmen. She also draws attention to quasi-ombudsman institutions operating in the EU, which although similar in the scope of their activities, and sometimes in name, cannot be considered the same as institutions of the ombudsman, for various reasons. The final part of the article classifies the various models of the office of the ombudsman in the EU States.(original abstract)