Czas wolny a kondycja współczesnego człowieka
Leisure Time vs Condition of Contemporary Man
Autorka rozpatruje czas wolny jako kategorię powiązaną z kulturą masową. Przedstawia problematykę podróżowania w ujęciu historycznym, począwszy od starożytności po czasy współczesne.
In the above-presented article, I attempt at delineating the interrelations that exist between such categories leisure and mass culture. By focusing on some of the features of mass culture, I endeavour to find the influence that those features have on the changing aspects of leisure. Not only do I introduce, but also emphasise the importance of, such categories as "action" and "entertainment" which have recently become the major factors determining whether something is popular, widely desired or symbolically loaded. The issue of travelling is also closely examined as conditioned by, and interwoven with, the above-sketched categories. By taking a closer look into how advertisements create social opinion and social needs, I refer to the conceptions of "pilgrim" and "stroller", recently introduced by Zygmunt Bauman. Following Bauman's ideas, and, by the same token, incorporating the theories proposed by Alvin Toffler in his book "Future Shock", I indicate some of the dangers that constantly altering, globally determined socio-economic changes bring to the conditions of an individual. As I emphasise, a professional activity is very rarely able to meet the expectations and interests of contemporary individuals. Moreover, along with the development of production systems, professional activity tends to become "privilege" of ever smaller circles of world societies. Thus, there exists a need to take a closer look at all challenges of leisure which today carries a particular role of fulfilling the individual's expectations (such as ambitions, personal interests, professional challenges, etc.) which had usually been fulfilled by professional activity. Hence, bearing in mind all above-outlined features, there exists a great need to focus on the condition of the individual in a broad sense from the particular, leisure-focused standpoint. (original abstract)