Zasady funkcjonowania rezerw na ryzyko kredytowe w bankach w Republice Czeskiej
The functioning principles of provisions against credit risk in the banks of the Czech Republic
Celem artykułu jest analiza i prezentacja systemu rezerw na ryzyko kredytowe, charakterystycznego dla banków funkcjonujących w Czechach. Zwrócono uwagę, że Czechy należą do krajów, w których zasady funkcjonowania rezerw na ryzyko kredytowe zostały dosyć szczegółowo uregulowane w przepisach prawa.
Provisions against credit risk exemplify traditional instruments of fighting risk in credit institutions worldwide. Although they have been well known and commonly used for a number of years, their functioning principles have not been yet unified on the supra-national level and are subject to ongoing evolution, especially in developing countries. The article aims at presenting and analysing the system of provisions against credit risk in the Czech Republic. The discussed system comprises - provisions for financial receivables, including: provisions for individual receivables, provisions for portfolio of receivables classified special mention, provisions for portfolio of individually insignificant receivables, provisions for selected off-balance-sheet items. As follows from the conducted research, the functioning principles of credit risk provisions in the Czech banking system are: regulated in detail in the provisions of law binding for the banks, not included in a single legal act, but are regulated by several separate acts of different ranks, unified for all banks, but not identically formalized in detail for all types of provisions, subject to evolution - the most recently introduced amendments have been in force since January 1, 2005 and explicitly refer to the international accounting standards, primarily the IAS 39 "Financial instruments - recognition and valuation" and IAS 37 "Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets". (original abstract)