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2003 | nr 1 | 23--41
Tytuł artykułu

Europejska Polityka Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony: geneza i założenia

Warianty tytułu
European Common Foreign and Security Policy: Origins and Premises
Języki publikacji
Artykuł zawiara główne przesłanki Europejskiej Polityki Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony (ESDP). Opisano mankamenty Wspólnej Polityki Zagranicznej i Bezpieczeństwa UE. Przedstawiono ideę Europejskiej Tożsamości Bezpieczeństwa i Obrony (ESDI). Ostatnia część artykułu zawiera założenia ESDP.
In the second half of the 90. the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union faced the challenges that required other instruments and intergovernmental procedures than these established by Maastricht Treaty. EU's inability to prevent the domestic war in the former Yugoslavia, and then to react to déstabilisation of Albania and to Kosovo crisis were the main reasons for strengthening the CFSP. The lack of common and consistent defence policy was the most obvious shortcoming. There was no political will in the EU to engage in peacekeeping operations, nor adequate military means and supplies for such actions. The Union was unable to work out a uniform approach towards the conflicts taking place close to its borders, or (as in case of the wars in Yugoslavia) it was not in a position to implement the CFSP effectively. This meant that EU was still unable to establish its identity as a comprehensive international actor - and that was one of the goals of the Maastricht Treaty. Attempts to constitute the European Security and Defence Identity on the basis of the Western European Union and in the framework of NATO (in the form of Combined Joined Task Force) also failed. In spring of 1998, the unexpected change of position of Great Britain led to new, positive developments and initiatives in this field. New British government decided to discontinue the long-lasting British opposition to the plans of building common European defence. In December 1998, during the French-British summit in Saint-Malo, a common declaration on European security was issued. This enabled the EU Council to proclaim the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) as an executive instrument of the CFSP. According to the European Headline Goal new European Rapid Reaction Forces will be set up, allowing the EU to act independently in crisis management kind of situations. Author concludes that decisions taken by leaders of EU member states in 1999-2000 eventually helped to shape up the CFSP and can be seen as realisation of the premises of the Maastricht Treaty regarding common defence policy. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
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