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2006 | nr 1099 Spójność społeczna, gospodarcza i terytorialna w polityce Unii Europejskiej | 310--337
Tytuł artykułu

Real Converge and Employment Intensity of Growth. An Empirical Analysis for the EU Countries and Regions

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EN
Abstrakty
Począwszy od Białej księgi na temat wzrostu, konkurencyjności zatrudnienia (1993) poprzez europejską strategię zatrudnienia (1997) oraz strategię lizbońską (2000) wskazuje się dwa zasadnicze cele określane na poziomie europejskim: wzrost PKB oraz wzmocnienie działań dotyczących zatrudnienia i wzrostu. W pracy omówiono zagadnienie konwergencji i relacji PKB per capita (poziom i dynamika) oraz wskaźnika zatrudnienia (poziom i dynamika) w krajach i regionach Unii Europejskiej. W ostatnim dziesięcioleciu znacznie zwiększyła się liczba prac teoretycznych i empirycznych poświęconych zagadnieniom realnej konwergencji. W celu lepszego prześledzenia sytuacji w ostatnich latach przedstawiono najpierw krótki przegląd literatury z zakresu teoretycznych i empirycznych zagadnień realnej konwergencji oraz relacji wzrostu gospodarczego i zatrudnienia (bezrobocia) (cz. 2). W części 3 opracowania, wykorzystując dane Eurostatu dotyczące sytuacji w regionach w latach 1995-2003, dokonano analizy porównawczej poziomu i zmienności PKB per capita oraz wskaźnika bezrobocia w UE 25 oraz analizy konwergencji w ujęciu EU 25, UE 15, EMU 12 oraz w 8 nowych krajach członkowskich - w odniesieniu do regionów statystycznych zdefiniowanych na poziomie NUTS l (wskaźnik konwergencji sigma oraz najmniejszej - beta) i na poziomie NUTS 2 (wskaźnik konwergencji sigma oraz absolutny i warunkowy wskaźnik beta). Poza tym w odniesieniu do krajów UE 15 przeprowadzono wstępną analizę korelacji między PKB i zatrudnieniem oraz między intensywnością zatrudnienia i wzrostem gospodarczym w tym samym okresie, czyli w latach 1995-2003. Niektóre najważniejsze wnioski wskazują na (1) duże zróżnicowanie sytuacji w UE (pod względem poziomu PKB, wskaźnika wzrostu PKB, poziomu i wskaźnika zatrudnienia), (2) istnienie wśród krajów i regionów grupy krajów i regionów podobnych oraz zróżnicowanych, (3) zauważalne różnice miedzy wzrostem PKB i zmianami zatrudnienia oraz między intensywnością zatrudnienia i wzrostem gospodarczym. (oryginalne streszczenie)
EN
The goal of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence and results about some questions of economic dynamics largely debated in recent years: is there evidence of a convergence process, across countries and/or regions, of basic real economic variables? Is there relationship between real GDP growth and employment changes progressively vanishing or is rather changing its strength? In this article the authors present empirical evidence and results on long-run dynamics in per capita GDP and employment in Europe compared to the United States. The authors compared performance and convergence dynamics on per capita GDP and employment in EU-25 countries and regions and showed employment intensity of growth in EU-15 countries.(MP)
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