O wpływie stosowanej metody przeliczania głosów na mandaty na wynik wyborów
On the Impact of the Applied Method of Converting Votes into Seats upon Election Outcome
From 1991 elections to the Seym (the Polish parliament) apply proportionate voting regulations, and from 1992 such a requirement possesses constitutional rank. The very rule about the proportionate nature of the elections is not decisive for the composition of the lower chamber of the parliament in the case of given voting results. The number of seats won by particular election committees depends, i.a., on the method used within the voting district for dividing seats between winning parties. The article presents basic methods of converting votes into seats together with examples based on authentic election results in election districts. The authors also demonstrate that the number of seats won by a given group depends on the distribution of votes in favour of other groups. The article goes on to discuss solutions employed in Poland in 1991-1997, and the proposal of changing the voting regulations, made by the Labour Union deputies and rejected by the Seym, together with a depiction of their influence upon the election outcome. The example of a reverse redistribution paradox consists in the fact that despite the growth of the number of seats controlled by a given party, its force, measured by the Shapley index, continues to fall. (original abstract)
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