Charakterystyka i główne problemy ekonomiczno-finansowe europejskiego przemysłu farmaceutycznego
Main Problems of the European Pharmaceutical Industry
Artykuł zawiera analizę rynku farmaceutycznego państw europejskich ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem rynku farmaceutycznego krajów Unii Europejskiej. Omawia także główne problemy europejskiego przemysłu farmaceutycznego takie jak m.in. spadek cen, wygasanie praw patentowych na leki i dopuszczanie leków do obrotu.
The pharmaceutical industry is among the fastest developing areas of economy, particularly in highly industrialised countries. It characterises with a great research-development potential. The production of drugs requires utilisation of specialist technologies. The products made by this branch of industry are sold on all world markets, therefore, it is perceived as the "global" industry. Currently the pharmaceutical industry particularly the European one, is suffering crisis. Its causes are recognised in many areas of pharmaceutical companies activity. There are mentioned: falling prizes of pharmaceutics, expiring patent rights on drugs, delays in granting licences for pharmaceutics by the registration offices of the European countries, reduction of expenditures on research and development. The main reason for dropping prices is parallel trade in drugs and price regulation by state authorities. The problem of parallel import in the pharmaceutical industry was clearly outlined after European Union accession of countries such as Greece, Portugal and Spain. The import allowed equalization of price differences through importing identical or "enough similar" drugs from the countries where prices are lower to the ones with significantly higher prices. In Europe, the state bodies often impose the prices, although the prices also often result from the price war between competitors. Another, often encountered, problem of pharmaceutical producers is expiring duration of patent rights on drugs that generated large profits. The producers face the competition producing generic drugs. The costs of introduction of such drugs to the market are lower than in case of the genuine ones. Another issue specific for the pharmaceutical industry and creating problems are complex procedures preceding admission of drugs into the market.. The registration process in many countries is lengthening and becoming too rigorous, whereas the cost of getting a certificate is growing enormously. The next issue adding to a declining attractiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is lower level of innovativeness as compared to the United States. All of this leads to the drastic worsening of the financial situation of pharmaceutical companies, which in turn enforces on them reduction of expenditures on research and development. Furthermore, it reduces a chance for production of innovative drugs. (original abstract)
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