Ewolucja systemu finansowania szkolnictwa wyższego w Australii
The Evolution of the Higher Education Financing System in Australia
Omówiono zmiany w systemie finansowania szkolnictwa wyższego w Australii. Zwrócono uwagę na moment wprowadzenia powszechnej odpłatności za studia (HECS) i zastosowania mechanizmu pożyczek uzależnionych od wysokości dochodów.
The purpose of this article is to show the transformations in the Australian higher education financing system, which has undergone fundamental change from a system strictly regulated by the state to the present system based mostly on market principles. The problem that became the driving force behind fundamental reforms in this area is characteristic of the higher education financing sphere in the majority of countries. The point is the massive promotion of higher education, which on the one hand produces undisputed benefits - for example, by the increase in education indicators - but is also a reason for the crisis in higher education financing caused by the inability of the state to meet the need for increased budgetary expenditure in this regard. The fundamental changes in higher education financing in Australia started with the introduction of the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS). In this article, the author analyses the effects of this move both from the perspective of financial effectiveness as well as with consideration to equality of access to higher education. The author pays particular attention to describing the mechanism of income contingent loans, thanks to which it was possible to change the sources of financing of higher education. Attention is also paid to recent modifications in the differentiation of course fees in various specialisations and expansion of the loan system. (original abstract)
- Chapman В., A Submission on Financing Issues to the Department of Education, Science and Training Inquiry into Higher Education, Center for Economic Policy Research Australian National University Discussion Paper no. 456, December 2002.
- Chapman В., Australian Higher Education Financing: Issues for Reform, Policy Forum: Higher Education Funding, „The Australian Economic Review”, 2001, vol. 34, no 2.
- Chapman В., Salvage Т., Changes in Costs for Australian Higher Education Students from the 1996/97 budget, „Austrian Journal of Public Policy” 1998, vol. 4.
- Chapman В., The Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS): Conceptual Basis and Implications, „German-Australian Conference on Higher Education Financing”, Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK) and the Australia Centre Berlin, Berlin, October 2003.
- Dawkins J.D., Research for Australia: Higher Education's Contribution, AGPS, Canberra 1989.
- Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2003, OECD, Paris 2003.
- Gallagher M., The Evolution of Higher Education Financing in Australia, „German-Australian Conference on Higher Education Financing”, Berlin, October 2003.
- Greenaway D., Haynes M., Funding Universities to Meet National and International Challenges, School of Economics Policy Report, 2000.
- Kaiser F., Vossensteyn H., Koelman J., Public Funding of Higher Education. A Comparative Study of Funding Mechanisms in Ten Countries, OCenW, Zoetermeer 2002.
- Karmel P., Public Policy and Higher Education, „Australian Journal of Management” 2001, August, no 26.
- LaRocque N., HECS: Not the Bad Hex It Was Made Out To Be, „Review of Public Affairs” 2003, vol. 55, no 3.
- Reform on Higher Education Financing, The Wran Report, 1988.
- Selected Higher Education Statistics Finance 2002, Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), 2003.
- The National Report on Higher Education in Australia, Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), 2001.