Socio-Economic Inequalities in Health - Measurement Problems and the Results of Analyses for Poland
Population health status has improved in the EU in the recent years, but health inequalities continue to be considerable, both within individual Member States and among them. Reducing human potential, the inequalities seriously burden the Member States and their health care systems. Policies aimed at removing the inequalities could help increase productivity, constrained by diseases and premature mortality. The article presents the results of an empirical investigation into the magnitude of the socio-economic health inequality in Poland. The inequality was measured with the health concentration index indicating the inequality of health status distribution caused by economic status. A valuable property of the health concentration index is that it can be decomposed, thus allowing the identification of the sources of the inequality. The investigation took account of the fact that gender causes variations in the values of health indicators. (original abstract)
- Allanson, P. (2010). Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequality: welfare foundations and alternative measures, Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics, Working Paper No. 240.
- Cavelaars, A.E., Kunst, A.E., Geurts, J.J.M. (1998). Differences in self-reported morbidity by educational level: a comparison of 11 western European countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, No. 52: 219-227.
- Chandola, T., Ferrie, J., Sacker, A., Marmot, M. (2007). Social inequalities in self-reported health in early old age: follow-up of prospective cohort study, BMJ; 334:990, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.39167.439792.55.
- Doorslaer, E. van, Koolman, X. (2004). Explaining the differences in income-related health inequalities across European countries, Health Economics, No. 13:609-628 DOI: 10.1002/hec.918.
- Doorslaer, E. van. Wagstaff, A., Bleichrodt, H. (1997). Income-related inequalities in health: some international comparisons, Journal of Health Economics, No. 16(1): 93-112.
- European Commission, (2010). Reducing health inequalities in the EU, Luxemburg http://ec.europa.eu/health/archive/ph_determinants/socio_economics/documents/com2009_background_en.pdf
- Gundgaard, J., Lauridsen, J. (2006). Decomposition of sources of income-related health inequality applied on SF-36 summary scores: a Danish health survey, Health Quality Life Outcomes, No. 4: 53.
- Health policy and the accessibility of health care, exclusion and health inequality. (2007). S. Golinowska (Ed.), (in Polish), Warszawa: IPiSS.
- Jones, A.M., Widman, J. (2005). Disentangling the relationship between health and income, HEDG Working Paper, No. 05/07.
- Kakwani, N., Wagstaff, A., Van Doorslaer, E. (1997). Socioeconomic inequalities in health: measurement, computation and statistical inference, Journal of Econometrics, No. 77 (1): 87-104.
- Laskowska, I., (2000). Equality in financing and accessibility of medical services. A statistical and econometric analysis (in Polish), Łódź: Absolwent.
- Microeconometrics. Models and methods for analysing individual data. (2010). M. Gruszczyński (Ed.), (in Polish), Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer Polska.
- O'Donnell, O., Van Doorslaer, E., Wagstaff, A., Lindelow, M. (2008). Analyzing Health Inequalities Using Household Survey Data, Washington. D.C.: The World Bank.
- Social Diagnosis 2009. The Conditions and Quality of Life in Poland. (2009). J. Czapiński, T. Panek (Eds.), Warszawa: The Council for Social Monitoring.
- The material status of a family and its milieu and the feelings and lifestyles of youth aged 15 years (2007). J. Mazur (Ed.), (in Polish), Warszawa: Instytut Matki i Dziecka.
- Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B. (2000), Selected elements of sociology of health and illness (in Polish), Kraków: WydawnictwoUniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.
- Wagstaff, A. (2005). The Bounds of the Concentration Index When the Variable of Interest is Binary with an Application to Immunization Inequality, Health Economics, No. 14: 429-432.
- Wagstaff, A., Paci, P., Doorslaer, E. van. (1991). On the Measurement of Inequalities in Health, Social Science & Medicine, No. 33 (5): 545-557.
- Yiengprugsawan, V., Lim, L., Carmichael, G., Sidorenko, A., Sleig, A. (2007). Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, International Journal for Equity in Health, No. 6:23 DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-6-23.