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2011 | nr 2/1 | 83--97
Tytuł artykułu

Japanese Keiretsu Groups : Their Origins, Development and Restructuring

Warianty tytułu
Japońskie grupy kapitałowo-przemysłowe Keiretsu geneza, rozwój i przemiany
Języki publikacji
Do połowy lat 80. XX wieku grupy kapitałowo-przemysłowe Keiretsu były istotnym czynnikiem wysokiej dynamiki rozwojowej Japonii. Zakończenie tego okresu zbiegło się z niedostosowaniem struktury organizacyjnej oraz mechanizmu funkcjonowania Keiretsu do nowych etapów i warunków rozwoju gospodarki japońskiej. W artykule przedstawiono genezę, strukturę organizacyjną i mechanizmu funkcjonowania Keiretsu oraz przekształcenia, jakim te struktury podlegają. (abstrakt oryginalny)
Keiretsu groups are of great interest for researchers, scholars, business journalists, and practitioners both from the point of view of the explication of the dynamics and ability to achieve and maintain in competitive conditions, and in order to seek pointers to identification of successful features of business groups in general. The term Keiretsu has been applied to a variety of Japanese intercorporate networks. In general, Keiretsu groups are defined as clusters of independently managed firms maintaining close and stable economic ties, cemented by a governance mechanism such as Presidents' Clubs, partial cross-ownership, and interlocking directorates [Grabowiecki, 2006]. Within the broad definition lie two distinctive variations. The "horizontal" Keiretsu (also called financial and enterprise groups) are conglomerate firms covering several industries linked by cross-shareholding, intra-group financing and high level management by a central (often shadowy) body of directors. The "vertical" Keiretsu are groups around one big manufacturer and consist of a multi-layered system of suppliers focused on the core company. There are two main objectives of this paper: The first objective is to describe the origins, organizational structure and mode of operation Keiretsu groups, and their role in Japan's economy.The second objective is to present a process of restructuring of Keiretsu (fragment of text)
Opis fizyczny
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