Optymalne zróżnicowanie dochodów w Stanach Zjednoczonych i Szwecji - analiza ekonometryczna
The Optimal Inequality of Incomes in United States and Sweden - Econometric Analysis
W artykule porównano wstępne wyniki badań dla dwóch krajów, w których zróżnicowanie dochodów jest jedne z najwyższych (stany Zjednoczone) i jedne z najniższych (Szwecja) wśród krajów rozwiniętych. (fragment tekstu)
Inequality of incomes is one of the most crucial factors forming the social capital. Two views dominate among economists dealing with the influence of inequality of incomes on economic growth. The first view says that the level of inequality of incomes which is too low does not encourage to take up actions that positively influence the labour productivity, and as a result, the acceleration of economic growth. Low level of inequality may be an effect of an excessively developed system of social care and considerable participation of social transfers in GDP. It concerns the situation where an unemployed person voluntarily resigns from employment due to the fact that the basic salary is not much higher than the unemployment benefit, whereas an employed person doesn't increase the effectiveness of performed tasks because he or she finds no economical reason for that.At the same time, other view appears, according to which, an excessive inequality of incomes leads to the negative influence on economy. The concentration of wealth among a sparse population makes an effective use of this wealth and its further transformation to new investments that determine growth questionable. Too excessive the quality can also lead to the situation when the major part of society will stop accepting it regarding the inequality unfair and unjustified. As a result, economy will report the growth of crime rate and the drop in the level of trust, in general the social capital will be reduced. The above arguments encourage us to advance the hypothesis that the influence of an inequality of incomes on the economic growth is characterized by nonlinearity. We will make an attempt to find the optimal inequality that will not affect negatively the economic growth through the inadequate income incentives for the most (or for the least) hard-working and effective people. We estimate the historic optimal inequality of incomes in the models of an economic growth at: ca. 46% in US, and ca. 24% in Sweden (Gini coefficient). To remind - the optimal inequality of salaries in Poland was previously estimated at ca. 29%. Such differences can result from the cultural differences, differences in the level of education, ethnic differences as well as from the different diligence. (original abstract)
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