Specyfika ryzyka operacyjnego w bankowości elektronicznej
Specifics of Operational Risk in Electronic Banking
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przybliżenie specyfiki ryzyka operacyjnego występującego w środowisku bankowości elektronicznej poprzez zaprezentowanie czynników kształtujących strukturę oraz skalę wyżej wymienionego ryzyka. (fragment tekstu)
The development of electronic banking has resulted in modifications of some of the risk types connected with traditional banking activities, especially operational, legal and reputational risks. All the above-mentioned risks were identified by the Basel Committee and are closely interconnected. However, it is the operational risk which exerts most influence on banks' activities and their situation due to its complex character owed not only to the environment and external incidents, but also the banking organisation as such. The aim of the article "Specifics of operational risk in electronic banking" is to introduce the specifics of operational risk which occur in the e-banking environment by presenting factors which shape its structure and the extent of the above-mentioned risk. There is a real need to learn more about the factors contributing to operational risk, which have grown in their importance in recent years, when many of the problems in banking have proved to be of operational background. Awareness of this risk type and its possible consequences is also increasing. In recent years operational risk level has risen considerably, which, among others, is due to more and more extensive application of Information Technologies in banking, more and more important role and extent of e-commerce and outsourcing, and also due to such phenomena which are typical of banking as takeovers and mergers as well as certain incidents which caused generating loss in the banking sector. Banking risk changes due to the transformation of the external environment of banks, technological progress as well as globalization of banking services and competition pressures. The character of particular risk types occurring in electronic banking changes because e-banking environment is different from traditional banking. In the virtual environment there appear such new entities as hackers, the role of software and IT suppliers becomes much more significant, supervising authorities, bank employees as well as customers act differently. Electronic banking does not introduce a new banking risk type, but its specifics result in traditional banking risks changing their character and nature. One incident might trigger a few risk types. This could be observed in e-banking in relation to operational, legal and reputational risks and it could be illustrated as follows: a bank has not advised its customers on safety issues concerning credit card use. In this way the bank exposes itself to losses resulting from operational risk (transactions made by unauthorised credit card users), to legal risk (breech of duty caused by not having published the instructions for use of the credit card), and also to reputational risk (when the bank is perceived as unprofessional). Many of the problems in banking in recent years have proved to be of operational background. However, awareness of this particular risk type and its possible consequences is increasing, which is a positive development. Engagement of boards and managements of banks in operational risk management is also increasing. This risk often has its roots in substantial differences between procedures and practices applied and making inadvertent mistakes. Well-organized and up-to-date internal control procedures conducted in banks and independent hence objective audit might constitute a thorough protection against at least some of the abovementioned problems. An all important role belongs to Banking Supervision, which detects a great many banks' internal weaknesses. Bank customers' complaints might also add to the information on the scale of operational risk since these complaints often display irregularities and deficiencies of banking procedures, processes and systems from a different perspective. Financial institutions which competently manage operational risk do not display problems with proper operation processing, offer competitive, safe and satisfactory operational procedures to their customers, ensure reliability, safety and efficiency of their performance, gain advantage over their competitors, find it far easier to attract new customers, and more importantly, they know how to keep their customers satisfied. (original abstract)
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