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Czasopismo
2012 | nr 17 | 65--86
Tytuł artykułu

Aspiracje a ocena ryzyka i wybór

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Impact of Aspirations on Risk Judgment and on Risky Choices
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
Celem prezentowanych badań było: (1) sprawdzenie, czy ocena i akceptacja ryzyka to dwa niezależne procesy psychologiczne oraz (2) jaki wpływ na oba procesy ma poziom aspiracji. Sprawdzano, czy oceny ryzyka są niezależne, a wybory zależne od aspiracji. W Eksperymencie 1, 72 pracownikom firmy high-tech prezentowano pakiety akcyjne. Poziom aspiracji, zdefiniowany jako procentowy zysk z inwestycji, był narzucony przez instrukcję. W Eksperymencie 2, 93 uczestnikom turniejów brydżowych prezentowano rozkłady kart oraz pary możliwych kontraktów, z których pierwszy dawał pewną niższą, a drugi niepewną wyższą wygraną. Poziom aspiracji, narzucany przez instrukcję, odnosił się do liczby punktów IMP w rozgrywce knock-out. W obu eksperymentach zastosowano schemat porównań międzygrupowych dla dwóch poziomów aspiracji. Respondenci oceniali ryzyko prezentowanych opcji i wybierali jedną z nich. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników można stwierdzić, że oceny ryzyka były takie same, niezależnie od poziomu aspiracji, natomiast wybory respondentów były różne, przy różnym poziomie aspiracji. Jest to zgodne z tezą, że ocena i akceptacja ryzyka to dwa niezależne procesy psychologiczne. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
The presented experiments are aimed at determining: (1) whether risk perception and risk acceptance are two distinct psychological processes and (2) how aspirations affect each process. It has been tested whether risk is independent of and preferences are depend on aspirations. In Experiment 1 72 employees of a high-tech company were presented with pairs of risky projects. The aspiration level was defi ned as the target return on the project and was set through an explicit instruction. In Experiment 2 93 bridge players were presented with pairs of contracts - one a sure thing and the other a risky one. The aspiration level was related to the team IMP points after the fi rst part of a knockout tournament and was set through an instruction. In both experiments with a between-subject design, two different aspiration levels were set for each group. All respondents were asked to judge riskiness of presented options and to select one. The results indicate that risk perception is insensitive to changes in aspirations, but preferences are. This supports distinctness of risk perception and risk acceptance. (original abstract)
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Numer
Strony
65--86
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
  • Instytut Psychologii PAN
  • Sygnity S.A.
  • PricewaterhouseCoopers
Bibliografia
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Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
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Identyfikator YADDA
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