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Czasopismo
2008 | nr 10 | 59--81
Tytuł artykułu

Złość a procesy oceniania i podejmowania decyzji

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Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Anger and Processes of Judgment Decision Making
Języki publikacji
PL
Abstrakty
Złość jest jedną z najczęściej doznawanych emocji, ważne jest więc poznanie, jak wpływa ona na dokonywanie ocen i podejmowanie przez ludzi decyzji. Działanie złości można analizować na dwóch poziomach. Pierwszy to wpływ odczuwanej przez jednostkę złości na jej oceny i zachowania. Drugi to wpływ złości odczuwanej przez innych na zachowania jednostki. Badania pokazują, że odczuwana złość prowadzi do bardziej optymistycznych ocen, zarówno zdarzeń przyszłych, jak i zdarzeń z przeszłości. W sytuacji konfliktu interesów rozzłoszczeni przyjmują bardziej rywalizacyjne postawy i nie liczą się z interesami innych. Odczuwana złość prowadzi także do gorszego rozumienia własnych interesów negocjacyjnych, uzyskiwania gorszych wyników w negocjacjach, ale paradoksalnie do większego zadowolenia z uzyskanych wyników. Większe poczucie kontroli nad uzyskiwanymi wynikami prowadzi także do silniejszego przypisywania indywidualnej odpowiedzialności za zachowania szkodzące innym, a także za surowsze karanie takich zachowań. Z kolei badania nad wyrażaniem złości w sytuacjach konfliktów interesów pokazują, że złość jest interpretowana jako sygnał twardości i dużych aspiracji. Prowadzi to do uzyskiwania większych ustępstw, w sytuacjach gdy druga strona konfliktu ma słabą pozycję i zależy jej na osiągnięciu porozumienia. Jednak w sytuacjach, gdy druga strona ma silną pozycję, możliwości działań odwetowych, ekspresja złości jest dla osoby szkodliwa. Osoby takie są bowiem, jeśli partner ma taką możliwość, częściej oszukiwane niż osoby niewyrażające złości. Mają także wyraźnie mniejsze szanse na znalezienie się w koalicji niż osoby niewyrażające złości, choć jeśli im się to udaje, osiągają duże zyski. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
Anger is one of the most often experienced emotions, it is therefore important to understand how this emotion influences the process of judgment and decision making. The effect of anger can be analyzed on two levels. One is the question of how the anger an individual is experiencing influences her judgments and behaviours. Another thing is how anger being experienced by other people influences the behaviour of an individual. Research shows that a feeling of anger leads to more optimistic judgments, both of future and past events. When there is a conflict of interests, angry people take on a more competitive attitude and show little consideration for the interests of others. Anger also leads to worse understanding of one's self-interests and results in obtaining worse outcomes in negotiations, but paradoxically, it also brings about greater satisfaction from the outcome obtained. Additionally, a stronger sense of control over outcomes leads to holding the other party responsible for behaviours harmful to others and to being harsher when punishing such behaviours. Research on expressing anger in a situation of conflict shows that anger is interpreted as a sign of toughness and high aspirations. This allows for larger concessions in situations when the other party is in a weak position and/or is determined to reach an agreement. However, when the other party is in a strong position and/or can take severe retaliatory actions, expressing anger can be harmful to the angry person. In such situations the irate person tends to be cheated more often than a calm individual, if the other party can resort to such behaviours. Angry people are also less likely to join a coalition, but when they succeed, they can achieve considerable gains. (original abstract)
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Numer
Strony
59--81
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
autor
  • Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego w Warszawie
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