Demograficzne uwarunkowania zmian alokacji czasu kobiet w okresie transformacji
Demographic Determinants of Changes in Women's Allocation of Time
Celem pracy jest zbadanie rodzaju i siły związków wybranych zmiennych i wykorzystania czasu przez kobiety. Postawiono dwie tezy badawcze. Pierwsza jest taka, że zmiany w alokacji czasu kobiet są silnie skorelowane z procesami demograficznymi i ekonomicznymi. Druga teza odnosi się do natury związków pomiędzy badanymi zmiennymi, a mianowicie, że dominują wśród nich związki współistnienia. (fragment tekstu)
Although studies on allocation provide important things about the quality of life of the population, the question of time use is rarely included in demographic and economic analyses. Research on this subject is not popular, even though the Central Statistical Office systematically publishes the Time Use Structure reports. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the chosen demographic and economic variables on the women's time diary. The author claims that the changes in the allocation of women's time are more strongly conditioned than demographic and economic processes. The author will consider the nature of relations between the time allocation and the chosen variables. She will also attempt to find out if they are cause-effect, co-existence or intentional ones. New names for the models of time distribution in a family will be proposed. The traditional, intermediary and partner models will be replaced by the complementary, intermediary and substitutive ones, respectively. Individual models of time diary will be presented on the background of a fourphase demographic transition model. In each phase the relations among main human activities performed during household work, market work and leisure time will be presented. The first to use the economic approach to time allocation was George Becker in his article A theory of the Allocation of Time (1965). The discussed problem is associated with the theory of human capital. In earlier research (2007) the author identified the most powerful factors influencing the distribution of one of the time use structure components, i.e. of the work time. She examined how much the distribution of time over house- and professional work depends on such variables as sex, age, education, the place of residence class, professional activity, socio-economic group of a household, mean net personal income, the day of the week, the woman's life cycle and the country of residence. It turned out that the strongest influence factors were sex and education. The above shows that the individual studies on women's and men's time diaries are worthwhile. It has also been proven by E. Tarkowska (2001, s. 17-33) who said 'the disappearance of work, the transformation of the time itself, a flexible line between working and not working, between work time and free time are the main processes that are relevant as far as the changes of the role of free time in a life a contemporary human is concerned. It is also an important role of women's time'. The empirical analysis will cover an almost 30-year period of observation. It will be conducted on the basis of data from the Time Use Structure, the study carried out by the Central Statistical Office in the years of 1976, 1984, 1996 and 2003/2004 as well as on the data published in statistical and demographic annual reports on the above years. The author will apply classical methods of analysing dynamics and correlation as well as her own DCP measure - the work time distribution index. (original abstract)
- G.S. Becker: A theory of the Allocation of Time. "Economic Journal", September 1965
- J.P. Robinson, G. Godbey: Time for life. The Surprising Ways Americans Use Their Time. The Pennsylvania State University 2000
- W. Michelson: Time use. Expanding the Explanatory Power of the Social Sciences. Paradigm Publisher, Boulder, London 2005.