Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2013 | nr 33 | 9--30
Tytuł artykułu

R&D Offshoring to Emerging Economies: Can Poland compete?

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
R&D Offshoring to Emerging Economies: Can Poland compete?
Języki publikacji
Economists have analyzed offshore outsourcing mainly from the perspective of transaction costs and procurement decisions. In the current phase of globalization offshoring practice increasingly involves high value added activities such as design and R&D. Today's globalized R&D system embraces increasingly capable emerging economies that offer firms new options in terms the offshoring not just development but also research functions. However the offshoring of R&D to emerging economies entails higher levels of risk and uncertainty. The literature review shows that problems associated with this kind of R&D offshoring have seen few studies and are not well understood - especially in a comparative perspective of the practices of companies based in different countries with distinctive business philosophies. Some evidence points to differences in the offshoring practices of US companies - as "globalization leaders"- with those of German companies as "reluctant globalizers". The paper reports the preliminary results of an ongoing study of offshoring of pharmaceutical and biotechnology R&D to emerging economies. In this study we compare clinical trials destinations chosen by US and German companies - using the American government clinical trials database. We find interesting differences which however do not support the hypothesis that German companies are less aggressive about offshoring clinical trials than US based ones. We also look at the position of Poland as a site for offshored R&D and make recommendations about how the country could improve its competitiveness in this domain in the future. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Kogod School of Business, USA
  • Alchian A. A., Demsetz H. (1972) Production, information costs, and economic organization. The American Economic Review 62(5): 777-795.
  • BBT, Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung, "Nachrichten," 2011. Available at
  • Carter A. P. (1989) Knowhow trading as economic exchange. Research Policy 18(3): 155-163.
  • Cavusgil S. T., Calantone R.J., Zhao Y. (2003) Tacit knowledge transfer and firm innovation capability. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing 18(1):6-21.
  • Doctor R., et al. (2001) "Managing uncertainty in research and development." Technovation 21(2): 79-90.
  • Domberger S. (1999) The contracting organization: A strategic guide to outsourcing, Oxford University Press, USA.
  • Ernst D. (2006) "Innovation offshoring: Asia's emerging role in global innovation networks. "East-West Center Special Reports, University of Hawaii, July 10 2006.
  • EFI, Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (2011) Research, Innovation and Technological Performance in Germany. Trans. Eric Allen,
  • Germany Trade and Invest (2011) "The German Pharmaceutical Industry".
  • Grossman G. M., Helpman E. (2005) "Outsourcing in a global economy." The Review of Economic Studies 72(1): 135-159.
  • Hätönen J., Eriksson T. (2009) "30+ years of research and practice of outsourcing-Exploring the past and anticipating the future." Journal of International Management 15(2): 142-155.
  • Howells J., et al. (2008) "The growth and management of R&D outsourcing: evidence from UK pharmaceuticals." R&D Management 38(2): 205-219.
  • Howells J. et al. (2012) "Sourcing knowledge: R&D outsourcing in UK pharmaceuticals." International Journal of Technology Management 59(1): 139-161.
  • Hutzschenreuter T., et al. (2011) "Governance modes for offshoring activities: A comparison of US and German firms." International Business Review 20(3):291-313.
  • Jaruzelski B., et al. (2006) "Smart Spenders: Once again, Booz Allen Hamilton's annual study of the world's 1,000 largest corporate R&D budgets shows that high investment can't buy success." Strategy and Business 45: 46.
  • Kim C., Beldona S., Contractor F.J. (2007) "Alliance and technology networks: an empirical study on technology leaning', International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 38, Nos. 1/2 pp.29-44
  • Lewin A. Y., Couto V. (2007) Next generation offshoring: The globalization of innovation: 2006 Survey report, Duke center for international business education and research (CIBER).
  • Manning S., Massini S., Lewin A. Y. (2008) "A Dynamic Perspective on Next-Generation Offshoring: The Global Sourcing of Science of Science and Engineering Talent." Academy of Management perspectives (August 2008):35-54.
  • Martínez-Noya A., García-Canal E. (2011) "Technological capabilities and the decision to outsource/outsource offshore R&D services." International Business Review 20(3): 264-277.
  • McKinsey & Company (2008) "Thought Starters to Spur US-India Biopharma Collaboration." Business Monitor International.
  • Mroczkowski T. (2011) New Players in Life Science Innovation: 11, 17, 247-256.
  • Mudambi S. M., Tallman S. (2010) "Make, buy or ally? Theoretical perspectives on knowledge process outsourcing through alliances." Journal of Management Studies 47(8): 1434-1456.
  • OECD (2007a) OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2007.
  • OECD (2007b) Offshoring and Employment: Trends and Impacts.
  • OECD (2011) OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2011.
  • Piachaud B. (2004) Outsourcing R&D in the Pharmaceutical Industry: From Conceptualisation to Implementation of the Strategic Sourcing Process, Palgrave Macmillan. 127.
  • Quinn J. B. (1999) "Strategic outsourcing: leveraging knowledge capabilities", Sloan Management Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, 107-151.
  • Schöller D. (2007) "Service Offshoring and the Demand for Less-Skilled Labor: Evidence from Germany." Hohenheimer Discussion Papers, No. 287/2007,University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart.
  • Sen A. (2009) "Outsourcing of research and development activities: evidence from US biopharmaceutical firms." Global Journal of Business Research3(1): 73-82.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.