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2006 | nr 2 | 309--322
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Zwiększanie konkurencyjności przedsiębiorstw poprzez przenoszenie zakładów produkcyjnych do krajów o niskich kosztach siły roboczej

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W okresie ostatnich kilkunastu lat przedsiębiorstwa z krajów rozwiniętych, a także polskie przedsiębiorstwa (takie jak LPP), wykorzystują możliwość transferu kosztów produkcji do krajów o niskich kosztach siły roboczej w celu poprawy swej konkurencyjności. Z jednej strony, działania te nie są niczym nowym, już bowiem od XVI wieku zauważyć można było ciągły wzrost obrotów handlowych krajów, takich jak Wielka Brytania, Francja, Hiszpania oraz Niemcy z kontynentem azjatyckim i afrykańskim. Z drugiej strony, o ile jeszcze niedawno celem wymiany był głównie import surowców, o tyle obecnie zauważyć można przenoszenie całych zakładów produkcyjnych oraz łańcuchów logistycznych do krajów rozwijających się. Głównym czynnikiem determinującym ten trend jest coraz większy nacisk na redukcję kosztów oraz bardzo szybki rozwój infrastruktury komunikacyjnej i transportowej w "tanich" krajach, połączony ze znaczącą liberalizacją handlu światowego. (fragment tekstu)
Globalisation is no longer merely an option but an imperative. The migration of sourcing, manufacturing, R&D and service operations from high-cost countries (HCCs) to low-cost countries (LCCs) is well under way and accelerating fast. Fully loaded wages rates, including benefits, of $1 to $2 per hour in LCCs-compared with rates typically between $15 and $25 in the United States and as high as $30 or more in Europe - are the primary driver. But other factors, such as advances in telecommunication technology and in techniques for supply chain management, are contributing to the opportunity to radically restructure costs. Low cost no longer means low quality. Increasingly, LCCs pools of highly motivated and highly skilled workers are supported by first-rate infrastructure, education and training. In addition, LCCs have absorbed extensive knowledge transfer from multinational companies that are already operating there. Driven by these developments, the globalisation of cost structures will have a direct impact on a significant portion of global manufacturing GDP over the next decade. Companies are under enormous pressure to make the move to global operations. Of course not in all sectors there would exist the possibility to outsource the production costs. Companies will still need local customisation, local distribution systems and local branding. Also significant portions of manufacturing are expected to remain advantaged in their current locations. Reasons for staying in higher-cost locations might include the need to safeguard intellectual property content, the importance of collocation with customers or the requirement to use local content. Aggressive restructuring of processes and work methods in current facilities could also boost the productivity enough to offset the advantages of offshore operations. Each company must balance such considerations for each product line and market worldwide. Companies, which decide to outsource its production will need to consider such factors like repositioning and shutting down of some of existing facilities (together with laying off the existing employees). Additionally they will have to adjust product design and manufacturing processes in order to adapt to the altered trade-off between capital and labor in LCCs. Also decision making process must be adapted accordingly, in a way that is more inclusive, more flexible and faster than in case of traditional companies. Companies that consider all these factors and move intelligently stand to benefit from three compelling forms of competitive advantage: significantly lower costs, direct access to burgeoning markets and capabilities that creaste far more operational flexibility, customisation and variety. The landed cost of products assembled in LCCs is reduced 20-40% in comparison to HCCs (service costs are reduced even over 60%). The primary source of this advantage are lower personal costs, which is rather to increase than to decrease over next years. Other benefits are significantly lower capital requirements and economies of scale. Establishing operations in LCCs opens also opportunities to access attractive and fast growing local markets (such as China). More labourious production methods create exciting possibilities for flexible manufacturing, cost-effective customisation, richer segmentation and vastly increased quality. By capitalising on all the kinds of advantage available through outsourcing, leading companies can re-emerge as growth companies and expand their leads, followers can strike out in new directions. Sizing the outsourcing advantages can be however complex and arduous. Many kinds of risk need to be taken into account, from operational, monetary, and intellectual property to geopolitical risk. These risks should be considered continuously, even after the decision about outsourcing is taken, in order to properly react once any crisis (such as monetary crisis in 1997 in Asia) occurs. Despite all of the challenges, for the most of companies the question should not be whether to go, but how much and how fast one can move. The largest competitive advantage will be reached by companies, which decide very early about the move. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Accenture: Where East Meets West, 2005,
  • Bain & Company, Making the Move to Low-cost Countries, 2004,
  • BCG: Capturing Global Advantage,, April 2004
  • Landreth H., Colander D.C., Historia myśli ekonomicznej, Wyd. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 1998
  • Porter M.E., Porter o konkurencji, PWE, Warszawa 2000
  • Stalk G., Anatomy of a Cost Advantage, Manufacturing Today, May/June 2004
  • Zielińska-Głębocka A., Wprowadzenie do ekonomii międzynarodowej. Teoria handlu i polityki handlowej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1997
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