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2008 | 11 | 9--40
Tytuł artykułu

Prawo Indian amerykańskich

Warianty tytułu
The Law of American Indians
Języki publikacji
Na początku artykułu omówiono zarys historii Indian amerykańskich oraz główne pojęcia z tym związane. Następnie przedstawiono ewolucję prawa Indian, suwerenność plemion, prawa obywatelskie Indian, traktaty indiańskie, prawo federalne, stanowe i plemienne Indian oraz system sprawiedliwości. Na koniec uwagę poświęcono bogactwu kultury Indian.
Popular ideas contain opposing stereotypes of Native American Indians, usually remote from reality. On the one hand, there are those arousing sincere liking, such as the noble Winnetou, the 'noble savage', or the brave Last of the Mohicans. On the other hand, there are numerous hostile descriptions of Indians as primitive barbarians, fierce scum, murderous scalp hunters, cunning horse thieves, or cruel killers of white farmers whose ranches they burn barbarously. These stereotypes, as all stereotypes go, do not take into account Indians' very long, interesting and changing history, which became dramatic and sad for them since the conquest and appropriation of the American continent, which they had owned for centuries. The law, in which different cultural elements interweave, very clearly reflects the changing fates of American Indians' unique history - from full sovereignty to its restriction by extermination, assimilation and legalization, to eventual acculturation in the spirit of the so-called civilized West, and finally to attempts of original Indian culture to rise again. The history and present-day of the legal culture of American Indians, as the most interesting and richest manifestations of legal culture, first animism and then syncretism of sacred, moralist and legalistic cultures, has already produced a plethora of scholarly studies that make up separate libraries. Because this subject matter is extremely vast, we can only present here a very general overview of its main concepts and selected problems. The main concepts include: Indians, law and their land, or Indian territory/territories. We cannot obviously omit such issues as the sovereignty of tribes, status of tribesmen, treaty law, federal law, state law, tribal law and Indian jurisdiction. All these concepts and problems, in the context of the whole system of American law, in their retrospective, present-day and perspective, are defined with the term 'legalization of American Indians' in the sense of incorporating into the American law system that which used to be outside this system. This is obviously resisted by the Indians who fight for self-determination, fundamental human rights, for recovery of land once seized from them, and for protection of their own culture. Which is why they are sometimes termed the 'miner's canary of American democracy'. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
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