The family size effects on female employment. Evidence from the "natural experiments" related to human reproduction
The "natural experiments" related to human reproduction are an increasingly often applied strategy for assessment of the family size effects on female employment. The aim of this paper is to review theoretical concepts and the available empirical evidence on studies that implement this methodological approach. Most studies confirm that the number of children does have a negative effect on female employment, net of the impact of women's preferences regarding involvement in home-based versus paid work. Research provides consistent evidence on the way in which the effect of the number of children depends on parity and weakens over time, as the child becomes older. There is no consensus on the way that individual resources and preferences moderate the effect of family size on employment, however. Surprisingly little attention has been paid so far to the variation in the magnitude of family size effect according to living arrangements and country-specific contexts.(original abstract)
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