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2012 | 2 | nr 1 | 51--60
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Some Reflections on the Extraterritorial Application of the European Convention on Human Rights

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The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) entered into force in 1953. Since then, art. 1 of the Convention has regulated its jurisdiction. It states that "the High Contracting Parties shall secure to everyone within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in (...) this Convention." However, no definition of the term 'jurisdiction' is provided in art. 1 nor in any of the other articles of the Convention. The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) generally upholds a strictly territorial notion of jurisdiction in its jurisprudence. The lack of codification and clear rules in this regard results in disagreement between writers as to the scope and role of the extraterritorial application of the ECHR. Some argue that it is of a general nature, whereas others claim that the ECHR applies extraterritorially in precisely prescribed scenarios only. In the course of this paper the instances where the ECHR has been applied extraterritorially will be examined. It will be demonstrated that these precedents are well-established in the ECtHR's jurisprudence and constitute a clear yet flexible legal framework for applying the Convention extraterritorially. It shall be further shown that the Court uses the notion of protection of human rights to develop extraterritorial jurisdiction. It will then be supposed that the ECtHR will continue to build its jurisprudence on the subject within the already-established framework. It will be demonstrated that this framework is narrow and applicable only in a limited number of scenarios, with national opposition being one of the reasons for this limitation. (fragment of text)
Opis fizyczny
  • University of London, United Kingdom; Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, France; University of Wroclaw, Poland
  • Adam Roberts, What Is a Military Occupation (1984) 55, British Yearbook of International Law 249, 251.
  • Assanidze v Georgia (2004) 39 EHRR 653, para. 139.
  • Al-Skeini v Secretary of State for Defence [2007] UKHL 26.
  • Al-Saadoon and Mufdhi v United Kingdom App No. 61498/08 (ECtHR, 30 June 2009).
  • Al-Skeini v United Kingdom App No. 55721/07.
  • Al-Jedda v United Kingdom App No.27021/08 (ECtHR Grand Chamber, 7 July 2011).
  • Andreas F Lowenfeld, Conflict, Balancing of Interests, and the Exercise of Jurisdiction to Prescribe: Reflections on the Insurance Antitrust Case (1995) 89 "American Journal of International Law" 42.
  • Bankovic and others v Belgium and 16 other Contracting States (2002) 6 EHRLR 775.
  • Cairo case, the General Claims Commission (1929) Reports of International Arbitral Awards, 516.
  • Cedric Ryngaert, Jurisdiction in International Law, (Oxford University Press 2008) 5.
  • Cyprus v Turkey (2001) 35EHRR 731.
  • Clare Ovey and Robin White (eds), Jacobs & White: The European Convention on Human Rights, (4th edn, Oxford University Press 2006) 25.
  • David D Caron, The ILC Articles on State Responsibility: The Paradoxical Relationship Between Form and Authority (2002) 96 "American Journal of International Law" 857, 872.
  • Discussed in Hartford Fire Insurance Co v California (1993) 113 S Ct 2891.
  • Heribert Golsong, Interpreting the European Convention on Human Rights beyond the Confines of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties? in Ronald St John Macdonald, Franz Matscher and Herbert Petzold (eds), The European System for the Protection of HumanRights (Martinus Nijhoff 1993) 147.
  • Hague Convention IV Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, signed on 18 October 1907, Annex, Article 42.
  • Ian Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law, (7th edn, Oxford University Press2008) 299.
  • Ireland v United Kingdom (1978) Series A No 25, para. 159.
  • Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall In the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion [2004] ICJ Rep 136, para. 109.
  • Ilascu v Moldova and Russia 40 EHRR 1030, para. 312.
  • Loizidou v Turkey (Preliminary Objections) (1995) 20 EHRR 99, para. 62.
  • Magdalena Forowicz, The Reception of International Law in the European Court of Human Rights (Oxford University Press 2010) 52-53.
  • Marko Milanovic, Extraterritorial Application of Human Rights Treaties: Law, Principles,and Policy, (Oxford University Press 2011) 11.
  • Recalled in Loizidou v. Turkey (Merits) (1996) 23 EHRR 513, para. 52.
  • Recently, the issue was considered in Behrami and Behrami v France and Saramati v France, Germany and Norway 45 EHRR (2007) 10.
  • R.(Smith) v Secretary of State for Defence & Anor [2010] UKSC 29.
  • Sarah Miller, Revisiting Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: A Territorial Justification for Extraterritorial Jurisdiction under the European Convention (2010) 20 "European Journal of International Law" 1223.
  • Soering v United Kingdom (1989) Series A No. 161, paras. 88-91.
  • S.S. Lotus Case (France v Turkey) PCIJ Rep Series A No. 10 (1927) 18.
  • Traveaux Preparatoires de l'article 1er de la Convention europeenne des Droits del'Homme, Obligation to Respect Human Rights, Cour (77)9.
  • Traveaux Preparatoires de l'article 63 de la Convention europeenne des Droits de l'Homme, Territorial Application, Cour (78) 8.
  • Tarik Abdel-Monem, How Far Do the Lawless Areas of Europe Extend? Extraterritorial Application of the European Convention on Human Rights (2005) 14 "Journal of Transnational Law & Policy" 159.
  • Unreported case before Essex Assizes, summarized in UKMIL (1978) 49 BYIL 393.
  • Vaughan Lowe, Jurisdiction in Malcolm D Evans (ed), International Law (2nd edn, Oxford University Press 2006) 342.
  • Von Maltzan and others, von Zitzewitz and others, and Man Ferrostaal and Topfer Stiftungv Germany (2006) 42 EHRR 92.
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