Chápanie ľudskej dôstojnosti v kontexte etiky sociálnych dôsledkov
Perception of Human Dignity in the Context of Ethics of Social Consequences
This article is about the human dignity which represents the phenomenon much discussed in the present society. Discussions about these issues function as a fundamental ground, but still it is not enough. The more important are the tendencies of society to implement this term to the practical life of the people. I decided to think about the human dignity in the context of ethics of social consequences; especially I focused on the theory of V. Gluchman. As the group of people with special needs create a significant object of my interest, my reflections about this theory of human dignity are connected to this special group. Gluchman does not think about the human dignity absolutely (as for example G. Collste), he rather considers several criteria as being needful for acquirement of human dignity. He introduces the scale of human dignity that includes individual numbers functioning as important boundaries, briefly number 1 stands for human dignity of all people when they are born, number 2 constitutes the human dignity of moral subject and other higher numbers can be achieved based on positive social consequences of their acts. There is one important question. What about the dignity of people with special needs, especially with those with mental handicap? They usually lack relevant qualities which constitute the criteria for being a moral subject. So it means that they can not obtain the higher level of human dignity then that represented by the number 2 (because this number stands for the dignity of moral subject). When concerning the group of people with mental handicap, I consider this scale with these special numbers (boundaries) as inadequate, because in my opinion it functions as some restriction for them. In this article I proposed two possible approaches which can be used in solution of this "problem." Firstly, it is better to create a special scale of human dignity based on special needs of the people with mental handicap, because the fact is these people have their different and special needs as healthy people. Second possible way of attribution of higher dignity to people with special needs is to make it possible for them to omit the number 2 (the level of moral subject) in the scale of human dignity and to allow them to gain the higher dignity based on the consequences of their acts. We should always realize that the people with mental handicap are of the same value as we are and it should be our "moral duty" to help them and respect them(original abstract)
- Collste, G., Is human life special? Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am main; New York; Wien: Lang 2002.
- Gluchman, V., Etika a reflexie moralky. Prešov, FF PU 2008.
- Stavrovska, Z., Zakladne prava a slobody ľudi s mentalnym postihnutim a ich garancie Ustavou S, in Kolektiv autorov: Trening zručnosti pre pracu s ľuďmi s mentalnym postihnutim v zariadeniach socialnych služieb. Bratislava 2005, s. 8 - 12.
- Alexander, J.M., Buckingham, J., 2007, Deserving Dignity. Dostupne na: http://www.thehindu.com/fline/fl2510/stories/20080523251009700.htm, [Online 15. 11 2010].