Analysis on Principle of Sovereign Judicial Immunity in Municipal Courts in International Laws
In this article principle of sovereign judicial immunity, developments and changes on this principle and change of principle of immunity from absolute to limited have been studied. Judicial immunity of foreign state in municipal courts is of the most important issues in international and national law. Judicial immunity in national law is a special situation which immunes holders from prosecution and exercising legal punishments and disturbance of government officials and international judicial immunity contains mentioned characteristics in international arena. Immunity is one of the principles of general international law which prevents summoning of a foreign state to municipal state courts. Absolute immunity which was considered as a dominant method in early 20th century gradually changed to limited immunity doctrine according which, acknowledger state has no commitment about granting immunity to exercise incumbency of state and exercising limited immunity would lead to sovereignty exercise. (original abstract)
-  Pingel I., Legal Journal 35 (2006) 433.
-  Taghizadeh Ansari M., Research Center for Humanities 64 (2007) 28.
-  Taghizadeh Ansari M. (2004). Terminology of international law, French, Farsi, English. Tehran: Dadgar publication.
-  Sorayai H. (2003). Public International Law. Tehran: Ghomes publication.
-  Khanlari Almoshiri A. (2009). Immunities of the International Criminal. Tehran: Jungle publication.
-  Zamani G., Institute of Legal Studies and Research of Knowledge 4 (1999) 231.
-  Malcom Sh. (1993). International law, Translated by Waqar, M. H. Tehran: Information publication.
-  Sadr J. (1992). Diplomatic and Consular Rights. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
-  Sadr J. (2005). Diplomatic and Consular Rights. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
-  Ziyaii Beygdeli M. R., Study of Law and Politics 4 (2001) 97-98.
-  Amid H. (1995). Amid Persian culture, Tehran: Amir Kabir Publication.
-  Abdullahi M., Shafe M. (2007). State immunity in international law. Tehran: Department Presidential Press Office.
-  Falsafi H. (1991). Cognitive International Law, Journal of Legal Studies, Martyr Beheshti University: 90.
-  Kadkhodai A. A., Daei A., Journal of International Law 23 (2011) 23-31.
-  Musazadeh R. (1992). International rights organizations. Tehran: Pazhng Publication.
-  Mousavi A., Journal foreign policy 4 (2006) 874.
-  Moghtader H. (1994). Public International Law.Tehran: Political and International Studies.
-  Mollayi Y. (2005). Sovereignty and international law. Tehran: Science publication.
-  Montesque Sh. (1983). Spirit Alqvanyn, Translated by Mohandesi,A.Tehran: Tehran University Publication.
-  Kek Din N., Dibeh P., Peleh A. (2003). Public International Law, Translated by Habibi, H. Tehran: Information publication.
-  Hooman F., Zaydel A. (2000). International Economic Law, Translated by Zamani G., Tehran: Diffusion of knowledge.
-  Tajani Sh. B. (2012). Court precedent United States of America concerning the immunity of foreign governments and their property, Master's thesis, International Law: 17.
-  Caplan L. M. (2003). State Immunity Human Rights and Jus Cogens, A Critique of the Normative Hierarchy Theory App, (35763/9): 745.
-  Forcese C. (2007). De-immunizing torture, Reconciling Human Rights and state Immunity, McGill Law Journal.
-  Lyons A. B. (1956). The Avoidance of hardships Resulting from the Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity. Transactions of the Grotius Society vol 42.
-  Shaw M. (2005). International Law, Cambridge University press.
-  Robert B. (1987). The International Law Dictionary, Oxford.