Collaborative Intelligence - Definition and Measured Impacts on Internetworked e-Work
Internetworked e-Work is enabling new channels in cyber space for collaboration among physical and cyber agents, e.g., humans, robots, software agents. Research on Collaborative Control Theory (CCT) indicates that building and augmenting the Collaborative Intelligence (CI) of participants in cyber-physical networks can provide better support for achieving their individual and common goals. In spite of its rising significance and popularity, however, no clear and precise definition and universal quantitative measure has been proposed for the CI. In this article, we first formalize the CI by suggesting a formal definition, based on the definitions of its elements - collaboration and intelligence. We then propose a quantitative measure for the CI, adapted from the universal intelligence measure. For illustration, we analyze three recent collaborative e-Work studies at three different scales: (1) Telerobotenabled computer supported collaborative design; (2) Collaborative product line control in supply networks; (3) Demand and capacity sharing in multi-enterprise collaboration. From these case studies, common advantages such as work efficiency, network robustness and stability, service level, resource utilization, and collaboration cost are observed, analyzed, and translated into formal CI measures. Results indicate significant impacts of CI on the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of collaborative activities in emerging e-Work networks. (original abstract)
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