Active Ageing and its Impact on Labour Market
This paper focuses primary on the recently emerged notion of "active ageing" and the strategies aiming at turning it into a crucial mechanism in societal and economic adjustment to population ageing. It begins by highlighting the demographic revolution described by population ageing, more and more longer human life expectancy at birth, old age dependency ratio and their consequences on workforce. It goes on to discuss the concept and rationale of active ageing and its relationships to labor force. Then it outlines the basic principles on which policies on active ageing at work setting should be based and key elements of a strategy to implement it. The core of the active ageing policies is to enable people to continue to work according to their capacities and preferences, and to prevent or delay disabilities and chronic diseases that are costly to individuals, families and the health care system. This would also help to offset the rising costs in pensions and income security schemes as well as those related to medical and social costs. Next, the focus of the paper moves to the organizational level and the elements of an age management approach are discussed. It is stressed that a strategy of active ageing will enable ageing workers to have a stronger impact on their later life careers as well as on their health. At the macro level, if increased numbers of healthy older people were to extend their participation in the work force (through either full or part-time employment), their contribution to public revenues would continuously increase. The main reference point for this paper is Europe. (original abstract)
- 1. AMABLE, B. (2003): "The diversity of modern capitalism", Oxford, Oxford University Press.
- 2. ANXO, D. and ERHEL C. (2006): "Irreversibility of time, reversibility of choices? The Life-Course Foundations of the Transitional Labour Markets approach", Cahiers de la MSE, 58: 54-63.
- 3. BUTLER, R. (1990): "The promise of productive aging", Butler et al. (eds.), New York, Springer.
- 4. CABINET OFFICE (2000): "Winning the generation game", London, The Stationery Office.
- 5. CASEY, B., METCALF, H., and LAKEY, J. (1993): "Human resource strategies and the third age: policies and practices in the UK" in Taylor, P. et al., Age and Employment, London, IPM. REDAY-MULVEY, G. (2005): Working beyond 60, Houndmills, Palgrave.
- 6. COUTIOUX, P. and ERHEL, C. (2005): "Les politiques en faveur des seniors en Allemagne, en France, au Royaume-Uni et en Suède : quelles voies de réformes?", Travail et Emploi, 102: 107-118.
- 7. SALTMAN, R.B. (1998): "Critical challenges for health care reform in Europe", Saltman et al. (eds.), Open University Press, Buckingham-Philadelphia.
- 8. CUMMING, E. and HENRY, W. (1961): "Growing old-the process of disengagement", New York, Basic Books.
- 9. DOHM, A., SHIPER, L. (2007): "Occupational employment projections to 2016", Monthly Labour Review, November: 86-98.
- 10. ESPING-ANDERSEN, G. (1990): "The three worlds of welfare capitalism", Princeton, Princeton University Press.
- 11. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (1999): "Towards a Europe of All Ages", Brussels, European Commission.
- 12. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2006): "Indicators for monitoring the employment guidelines", 2005 Compendium, Brussels.
- 13. FUNK, L. (2004): "Employment opportunities for older workers: a comparison of selected OECD countries", DICE Research Report.
- 14. HAVIGHURST, R. (1963): "Successful ageing" in R. Williams, C. Tibbitts and W. Donahue (eds.) Process of Ageing, vol. 1, New York, Atherton: 299-320.
- 15. JACOBZONE, S. and OXLEY, H. (2002): "Ageing and health care costs", International Politics and Society, 1: 154-167.
- 16. JACOBZONE, S., CAMBOIS, E. and ROBINE, J.M. (1998): "Is the health of older persons in OECD countries improving fast enough to compensate for population ageing?", OECD Economic Studies, No. 30.
- 17. KALACHEA, A. and KICKBUSCH, I. (1997): "A global strategy for healthy ageing", World Health, (4) July-August: 4-5.
- 18. KOHLI, M. (1991): "Time for retirement", Kohli et al. (ed.), Cambridge, CUP.
- 19. LEOWSKI, J. (2000): "Transformacja epidemiologiczna - nowe wyzwania zdrowia publicznego", Zdrowie Publiczne, 9(100): 556-576.
- 20. OECD (1998): "Maintaining prosperity in an ageing society", Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
- 21. OECD (2007): "Working party on social policy", Seminar on the life risks, life course and social policy, Paris, OECD.
- 22. OECD (2003): "Health Data 2003", Paris, OECD.
- 23. OMRAN, A.R. (1998): "The epidemiological transition revisited thirty years later", World Health Statistics Quarterly, 53 (2-3-4): 35-49.
- 24. PFEIFFER, E. (ed.) (1974): "Successful aging", Pfeiffer (ed.), A Conference Report, Durham, NC, Duke University.
- 25. Rocznik Demograficzny (2001), Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, Warszawa.
- 26. ROWE, J. and KAHN, R. (1987): "Human aging: usual and successful", Science, 237: 143-149.
- 27. SOKOLOWSKA, M. (1980): "Granice medycyny", Warszawa, Wiedza Powszechna.
- 28. CAMPANINI, B. (2004): "The world health report 2004. Changing history", Campanini (ed.), Geneva, World Health Organization.
- 29. UNITED NATIONS (2001): "World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision", New York, United Nations.
- 30. UNITED NATIONS (1998): "World population prospects", 1996 Edition, New York, United Nations.
- 31. WALKER, A. (1985): "Early retirement: release or refuge from the labour market?", The Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, 1(3): 211-229.
- 32. WALKER, A. (1997): "Combating age barriers in employment", Luxembourg, Office for the Official Publications of the European Communities.
- 33. WALKER, A. (1999): "Why the ageing workforce demands an active response in public policy", Keynote Lecture for International Conference on Active Strategies for an Ageing Workforce, Turku, 12-13 August.
- 34. WHO (2000): "Health systems: improving performance, World Health Report, Geneva, World Health Organization.
- 35. WHO (2001): "Health and ageing", A discussion paper, Geneva, World Health Organisation.
- 36. WHO (2002): "Active ageing. A policy framework", Second United Nations World Assembly on Ageing, Madrid, April.