Spór o tolerancję
The Dispute Over Tolerance
Szczegółowo omówiono znaczenie pojęcia tolerancja.
The aim of this paper is to show what the concept of tolerance means. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the dispute over tolerance was to a large extent the dispute over intolerance. The participants of the debate did not lead a crusade for freedom of the individual's conscience regardless of the political system, but disputed the role of religion in political life. The participants of the dispute developed a fairly exact definition of the essence of tolerance. It was considered that tolerance did not concern this that was morally wrong, that by its own nature was harmful and mean, the moral essence of which had been established by the God's Word. Besides that, there existed "indifferent" nerves subject to political power which established laws. The laws were to regulate the functioning of the nerves for the benefit of public. At present the political sphere and other spheres of life are independent of religion. The term tolerance carries the postulates of humanisation of interpersonal relations, introduces the concept of friendship, solidarity, respect, kindness, and love. The word intolerance, on the other hand, describes forms of discrimination, from moderate to collective, and genocidal. Tolerance is consent (at best friendly consent) for those who are considered inferior to participate in the public life. Tolerance is a virtue of "the more equal", who are understanding and indulgent. Ija Lazari-Pawlowska draws attention to "positive tolerance" by which she means "favourable attitude towards other person's distinctness". Research shows that the Polish society's open-mindedness (statistically) equals with higher education, living in a bigger agglomeration, and younger age. A country that is tolerant to various political and religious groups is to guarantee them, within established limits, conditions necessary for the existence and maintenance of belief. Such a country, however, always gives one of groups a dominating position. Any dominating group is called "majority", and a tolerated one is labelled as "minority". No matter how tolerant a country is the concept of "majority" implies power, and of "minority" subordination. (original abstract)
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