Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2014 | 14 | 149--158
Tytuł artykułu

Desert and Drylands Extreme Environment Tourist Development

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Recently a couple from the State of Qatar died of thirst when their car overturned in the Rub al Khali desert south of the city of Doha. Although this region contains stunning natural beauty, including unusual fauna and biota, oases, sand dunes, and unique geomorphology, the Empty Quarter (Rub al Khali) desert is still a forbidding and extreme environment which must be explored with great caution. Drylands and deserts, defined by the ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration, cover approximately 40-50% of the world's land surface (including the dry Polar regions); thus they represent an important and underutilized tourist resource. This study reviews the challenges of developing the desert regions of MENA and the Arabian Gulf for sustainable natural and cultural tourism and the potential strategies for utilizing their unique gifts while at the same time maintaining their fragile existence. Deserts do not regenerate quickly and human impacts can remain and degrade these biomes for decades. Thus planners must determine whether mass tourism, niche market (adventure or extreme), or other strategies are appropriate, and the policies to prevent the destruction of the unique environmental features of these locales. As case studies of both successful and harmful projects in Jordan, Egypt and the UAE have demonstrated, desert tourism can be either beneficial to national GDP, local stakeholders, and international tourists, or, on the other hand, harmful to the environment, socially divisive, and unsustainable in the long term. A general consensus is emerging among tourism researchers that in order to productively add value to an economy and nation, tourism must be sustainable: it must take into account both short and long term environmental effects as well as the impact on local communities. Although seemingly counter-intuitive, lessons learned from sustainable extreme environment tourism development can be applied to all regions of the world, including water-rich tropical zones.(author's abstract)
  • Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar
  • Al-Alawin, M. (2008). Desertification in Jordan: A security issue. In: Environmental Change and Human Security. Recognizing and Acting on Hazard Impacts. Eds. P.H. Liotta, D.A. Mouat, W.G. Kepner, J. Lancaster. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (pp. 81-102).
  • Ahmed, M., Hussain, N., & Al-Rawahy, S.A. (2013). Management of saline lands in Oman: Learning to live with salinity. In: Developments in soil salinity assessment and reclamation: Innovative thinking and use of marginal soil and water resources in irrigated agriculture. Eds. S.A. Shahid, M.A. Abdelfattah, F.K. Taha. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (pp. 265-281).
  • Atilhan, S., Mahfouz, A.B., Batchelor, B., Linke, P., Abdel-Wahab, A., Nápoles-Rivera, F. & El-Halwagi, M.H. (2012). A systems- -integration approach to the optimization of macroscopic water desalination and distribution networks: A general framework applied to Qatar's water resources. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 14: 161-171.
  • Davies, J., & Holcombe, S. (2009). Desert knowledge: Integrating knowledge and development in arid and semi-arid drylands. GeoJournal, 74: 363-375.
  • Dixon, J.A., James, D.E. & Sherman, P.B. (1990). Dryland Management: Economic Case Studies. London: Earthscan Publications.
  • Dłuzewska, A. (2008). Direct and indirect impact of the tourism industry on drylands: The tourism industry example of southern Tunisia. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 19 (6): 661-669.
  • Hobbs, J.J. & Tsunemi, F. (2007). Soft sedentarization: Bedouin tourist stations as a response to drought in Egypt's eastern desert. Human Ecology, 35: 209-222.
  • Hudson, K. & Lee, D. (2010). Biodiversity and tourism: A valuable relationship. Social Alternatives, 29 (3): 39-43.
  • Hussain, N. (2005). Strategic plan for combating water and soil salinity in Sultanate of Oman for 2005-2015. Oman: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (unpublished).
  • Imeson, A. (2012). Desertification, Land Degradation and Sustainability. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Krakover, S. (1985). Development of tourism resort areas in arid regions. In: Desert development: Man and technology in sparselands Ed. Y. Gradus. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company (pp. 271-284).
  • Loveless, K.J., Farooq, A. & Ghaffour, N. (2013). Collection of condensate water: Global potential and water quality impacts. Water Resource Management, 27: 1351-1361
  • Lubick, N. (2004). Petra: An eroding ancient city. Geotimes 2004. Available at: (accessed on 4.06.2014).
  • Nelson, R. (1990). Dryland Management: The "Desertification" Problem. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
  • McKenna, J., Freudmann, A. & Kinninmont, J. (2010). The GCC in 2020: Resources for the Future. London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.
  • Mustafa, M.H. & Abu Tayeh, S.N. (2011). The impacts of tourism development on the archaeological site of Petra and local communities in surrounding villages. Asian Social Science, 7 (8): 88-96.
  • Oxfam (2012). Our Land our Lives: Time Out on the Global Land Rush. London.
  • Spiess, A. (2012). Environmental degradation, climate uncertainties, and human vulnerabilities: Realm of possible actions toward a shifting security paradigm in the Arab Gulf monarchies. In: Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Societal Stability. Eds. J. Scheffran, M. Brzoska, H.G. Brauch, P.M. Link, J. Schilling. Berlin: Springer Verlag (pp. 387-407).
  • Stafford Smith, M. (2008). The 'desert syndrome' - causally linked factors that characterise outback Australia. The Rangeland Journal, 30 (1): 3-14.
  • Weber, A.S. (2011). Bedouin memory between city and desert. Memory Connection, 1 (1): 128-141.
  • Weber, A.S. (2013). Sustainable tourism in extreme environments: Lessons from desert regions. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference - Tourism in Southern and Eastern Europe: Crisis - A Challenge of Sustainable Tourism Development? Opatija: University of Rijeka, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 2: 421-434.
  • Zekri, S., Mbaga, M., Fouzai, A. & Al-Shaqsi, S. (2011). Recreational value of an oasis in Oman. Environmental Management, 48: 81-88.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.