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2015 | Social Exclusions in Europe : Marketing Perspective | 11--24
Tytuł artykułu

Causes and Consequences of Social Exclusion in Europe

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Social exclusion is a concept used in many parts of the world to characterize forms of social disadvantage. It refers to processes through which individuals and entire communities of people are systematically blocked from rights, opportunities, and resources that are normally available to members of society and that are key to social integration. J. Grotowska-Leder points to two basic recognition of social exclusion. Participatory approach: emphasizes the reduction/lack of participation of individuals and groups in important areas/aspects of social life. These areas are primarily economic, political and social area, but participation in them is a kind of duty to ordered by existing social norms. Entity can be excluded from one or more of these areas. It should be noted that the exclusion can be both compulsory and voluntary. Distribution approach emphasizes: the reduction / lack of access to important social resources and services, such as the labor market, consumption, education, social services, and health services. In this sense, it is always compulsory (Grotowska-Leder 2005). (fragment of text)
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