Towards More Experimentalism in EU Governance of GMO Risks? Experience, Reforms and Remaining Problems
The controversies surrounding the use and cultivation of genetically modifi ed organisms (GMOs) in the European Union concern the uncertainty of their safety, possible risks to human health and the environment, and the potential lack of benefi ts to societies. Thus, it is already a truism that GMO risk regulation in the EU poses great challenges to legislators and policy-makers. Some of the problems arise from substantive disputes over the employment of potentially dangerous novel technologies of genetic engineering to the production of plants, foods, or medicines more generally, while others are of a procedural nature and concern the specifi - city of the EU and its constitutional structure. The regime has repeatedly instigated regulatory dilemmas for the EU and national authorities, in particular with regard to the introduction of new products on the market for cultivation purposes. It has remained one of the much-contested policy sectors since the launch of European regulation of biotechnology in the early 1990s.(fragment of text)
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