Environmental Changes, Rural Out-Migration and Social Dynamics in Himalayas
Environmental Changes, Rural Out-Migration and Social Dynamics in Himalayas The paper aims at interpreting inter-linkages between environmental changes and rural out-migration and at assessing their impacts on quality of life of rural women with a case illustration of Upper Kosi Catchment, Uttarakhand Himalayas, India. The results indicate that the availability of water, fuel-wood and fodder decreased, agricultural production declined and livelihood opportunities were reduced mainly due to depletion of natural resources. Consequently, the male out-migration increased by 15% during 1981-2011. This increased workload of women by 25%, more than 40% women are under severe threat of a variety of health risks generated mainly due to excess work-load, under-nourishment and lack of hygiene and sanitation.(original abstract)
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