Intercultural Project Management for IT : Issues and Challenges
The development of Information Technology projects using Project Management Methodologies like PMP-PMI, Agile or SCRUM for software development, CPM, CCPM, RAD, XP, FDD, ITIL, JAD, LD, PRINCE2, etc.; may be a complete success or a total catastrophe, for series of reasons, events and circumstances that frequently are not related at all with the deliverables, the products being built, the IT technology involved, the level of expertise, the responsibility and professionalism of the stakeholders including the project manager, but due to intercultural factors. The PMP-PMI Model (PMBOK) describes 10 areas: Cost Management, Time Management, Scope Management, Risk Management, Quality Management, Procurement Management, Integration Management, Stakeholder Management, Human Resources Management and Communication Management. An IT project is considered successful if the customer is happy, but technically and formally if the TEAM was able to meet the triple constraint set up by time/cost/scope. This happy ending is not possible if the project manager and the team as a whole are not able to confront, attack and solve the issues associated with Human Resources Management, Stakeholder Management and specially Communication Management. These three areas are highly influenced by Intercultural factors like language, race, age, gender, religion, sexual preferences, beliefs, habits, etc., becoming their analysis an essential task if we want to accomplish and guarantee a favorable outcome. This position paper concludes in contradiction with what is a very common believe between many technical project managers that the most important factors to take in consideration for the success of an IT project management is the careful and planned attention to the potential issues and challenges associated with the cross-cultural communication and the human resources implicated in the projects. This paper will describe the cultural dimensions, issues and challenges associated with Intercultural Project Management for IT. (original abstract)
- Adler N. (1997), International dimensions of Organizational Behavior, IT.
- Ali M., Alshawi S. (2004a), A Cultural Approach to Study Customer Relationship Management (CR M) Systems, CISTM 2004, Alexandria, Egypt.
- Ali M., Alshawi S. (2005), Cultural Universality Versus Particularity Within eCR M Systems: A Special Case of Information Systems, EMCIS 2005, Cairo, Egypt.
- Aycan Z., Kanungo R.N. (2000), Impact of Culture on Human Resource Management Practices: A ten-country comparison, "Applied Psychology: An International Review", 49 (1), 192-221.
- Bagchi K., Cerveny R. (2003), The Influence of National Culture in Information Technolog y Product Adoption, AMCIS 2003, Tampa, Florida, USA.
- D'Iribarne P. (2009), Conceptualizing national cultures: an anthropological perspective, http://inder-science.metapress.com/app/home/contribution.asp?referer=parent&backto=issue, 2, 6; journal, 4, 12; linking publication results, 1:120713,1.
- Dorfman W.P., Howell J.P. (1988), Dimensions of National Culture and Effective Leadership Patterns: Hofstede Revisited, "Advances in International Comparative Management", 3, 127-150.
- Early P.C., Mosakowski E. (2004), Cultural Intelligence, "Harvard Business Review", 193-146.
- Fiske A.P. (1992), The Four Elementary Forms of Sociality: Framework for a Unified Theory of Social Relations, "Psychological Review", vol. 99, pp. 689-723.
- Fiske A.P. (1991), Structures of Social Life: The Four Elementary Forms of Human Relations, New York: Free Press (Macmillan).
- Giddens A. (1979), Central Problems in Social Theory, Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.
- Giddens A. (1984), The Constitution of Society, Polity, Cambridge, UK.
- Hall E.T. (1976), Beyond culture, New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday.
- Hofstede G. (1980), Culture's consequences, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
- Hofstede G. (1997), Culture and organizations - Software of the mind, McGraw-Hill.
- Hofstede G.J., Pedersen P.B., Hofstede G. (2002), Exploring culture; exercises, stories and synthetic cultures, Yarmouth, Maine, USA: Intercultural Press.
- Isern G. (2014), Intercultural Communication and Management Factors and Their Impact to the Process of Global Software Development for Virtual and Non-Virtual Teams, "Journal of Intercultural Management", Volume 6 Number 1 January SAN: Warsaw.
- Jessen S.A. (1992), The nature of project Leadership, Scandinavian University Press, Norway.
- Kohls L.R. (1994), Developing Intercultural Awareness, Dallas SIL Library.
- Mohammed U., White G. (2008), Culture and Conflict Management, Style of International Project Managers, "International Journal of Business and Management", vol. 3, no. 5.
- Phen L.S., Yuquan S. (2000), An Exploratory Study of Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Dimensions in Constructing Projects, "Management Decisions", 20(1), 1-16.
- PMI PMBOK (2013), The guide of the Project Management Body of Knowledge, Project Management Institute.
- PMI (2013a), White Paper, Communication: the message is clear, Project Management Institute.
- Prabhakar G.P. (2004a), A switch will induce a better Pitch, Project Management Days, Vienna, Austria.
- Prabhakar G.P., Walker S.E. (2004a), Switch Leadership. Cahier de Recherché, N0.04-02. Lille Graduate School of Management, France.
- Prabhakar G.P., Walker S.E. (2005a), Intercultural Team Maturity Model: Unity, Diversity, Capability, Project Perspectives, 70-73.
- Russell S. (2001), Winer. Customer Relationship Management: A Framework, Research directions and the future, April.
- Saee J. (2013), Project Management in China, The PM Channel, 7th January.
- Sathish S., Pan S.L. et al. (2002), Customer Relationship Management (CR M) Network: A New Approach to studying CR M, AMCIS, Dallas, USA.
- Slevin D.P., Pinto J. (2004), An overview of Behavioral Issues in Project Management [in:] P.W.G. Morris, J.K. Pinto (Eds.), The Wiley Guide to Managing Projects, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Son.
- Skok W., Legge M. (2001), Evaluating Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems using an Interpretive Approach. SIGCOPR2001, San Diego, USA.
- Stahl B.C. (2003), Cultural Universality versus Particularity in CMC. Proceedings of the Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems, USA.
- Trompenaars F., Hampden-Turner C. (1997), Riding the Waves of Culture, 2 Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Trade.
- Turner R., Huemann M., Keegan A. (2007), Human Resource Management in the Project-Oriented Organization, PMI Project Management Institute.
- Vaara E. (2000), Constructions of Cultural Differences in Post-merger Change Processes: A Sense making Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases, "Management", 32, pp.81-110.
- Walsham G. (2002), Cross-Cultural Software Production and Use: A Structuration Analysis, MIS Quarterly, 26(4), 359-380.
- Wong Z. (2008), Maximizing Project Management through Understanding Cross-Cultural Diversity, International and Cross-Cultural Projects.
- Wong Z. (2008a), Human Factors in Project Management, "Journal of Product Innovation Management", Volume 25, Issue 5, 523-524, September.
- Young B. (2013), Cultural Influences in Project Management, The PM Channel, 9th January.