Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2015 | 2 | nr 1 | 45--56
Tytuł artykułu

Climate Change and Socio-Ecological Transformation in High Mountains : an Empirical Study of Garhwal Himalaya

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate change, as they are ecologically fragile, tectonically and seismically active, and geologically sensitive. The main objectives of this study are to examine socio-ecological transformations and to illustrate the major driving forces - climate change, education and waves of modern civilization - in the Garhwal Himalaya. Data on socio-ecological systems and their patterns of change were accumulated from primary and secondary sources and through participatory rural appraisal. We present a case study where household level surveys were conducted in two villages. A total of 37 households were surveyed. Additionally, marginal farmers and extension workers were interviewed. Questions on population, migration, cropping pattern and livestock were answered by the head of the surveyed households. Population size was decreasing due to out-migration. The whole Garhwal region experienced 15.3% out-migration, while migration from the two villages was observed at 50% during the period 1990-2014. Similarly, changes in land use and cropping patterns and in the livestock population were observed. There was a decrease in the extent of land under cereals (24%) and fruits (79%), a decrease in fruit production (75%), and a decrease in the number of livestock (76%). Climate change was observed as a major driver of the decrease in production and productivity of cereals and fruits, leading to land abandonment. Education, on the other hand, was a major driver of out-migration. Further, extreme events through climate change happened more frequently and changed the landscape. This study reveals that an increase in infrastructural facilities to create jobs and sustainable land management can control out-migration and can enhance land capability. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Mizoram University Aizawl, India
  • FAO, Community based adaptation in action, a case study from Bangladesh, Project, 2008.
  • UNEP, Environment for development, climate and trade policies in a post-2012 World, 2009.
  • UNFCCC, Background paper on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in Africa for the African Workshop on Adaptation Implementation of Decision 1/CP.10 of the UNFCCC, Accra, Ghana, 2006, 5-53.
  • IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • UNDP/UNEP, Poverty and climate change reducing the vulnerability of the poor through adaptation, UNDP/UNEP, 2005, 55-56.
  • FAO, Impact of climate change, pests and diseases on food security and poverty reduction, Background Document of 31st Session of the Committee on World Food Security Rome, Italy, 2005, 2-9.
  • Desanker P.V., Impacts of climate change in Africa. WWF Climate Change Programme, Berlin, Germany, 2002.
  • Nelson G.C., Rosegrant M.W., Koo J., Robertson R., Sulser T., Zhu T., et al., Climate change impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2009.
  • Rakshit S., Ewban R., Bhandari D., Agriculture and climate forecasting: In: Schipper E.L.E., Ayers J., Reid H., Hug S., Rahman A. (eds.) community-based adaption: scaling it up! 2014, 122-135. London, UK; Routledge.
  • Littell J.S., Mckenzie D., Kerns B.K., Cushman S., Shaw C.G., Managing uncertainty in climate driven ecological models to inform adaptation to climate change, 'Ecoshere 2 (9): art 2011, 102.
  • Patz J.A., Compbell-Lendrum D., Holloway T., Fley J.A., Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 2005, 438 (7066), 310-317.
  • Malik S.M., Awan H., Khan N., Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan. Globalization and Health, 2012, 8, 31.
  • Parry M.L., Rosenzweig C., Iglesias A., Livermore M., Fischer G., Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios', Global Environmental Change, 2004, 14, 53-67.
  • Mega F.J., Silva D., Dynamics adaption to maize and wheat production to climate change, Climate Change, 2009, 94, 143-156.
  • Lobell D.B., Gourdji S.M., The influence of climate change on global crop productivity. Plant Physiology, 2012, 160, 1686-1697.
  • UNFAO. The state of food insecurity in the world: eradicating world hunger - key to achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 2005.
  • Rowhani P., Lobell D., Linderman M., and Romankutty N., Climate variability and crop production in Tanzania. Agriculture and forest meteorology, 2011, 151, 449-460.
  • ICIMOD. Background Note for Regional Meeting of Experts on Development of Micro Enterprises in Mountain Area 25-26 July, Unpublished Text, 2007.
  • UNU project on sustainable mountain and forest development, UNU contribution to the Agenda 21, Chapter 13: Managing Fragile Ecosystems: Sustainable Mountain Development Retrieved from
  • Ives J. and Messerli E.P. The Himalayan Dilemma: Reconciling Development and Conservation. Routledge, London, 1989.
  • Sati V.P. Towards Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystems in Mountain Regions, Springer Cham, Germany, 2014.
  • Sati V.P. Landscape vulnerability and rehabilitation issues: a study of hydropower projects in the Garhwal region, Himalaya, Natural Hazards. Vol. 75, 2014.
  • Sati V.P. Natural Resource Conditions and Economic Development in the Uttaranchal Himalaya, India, Journal of Mountain Science, 2005, 2, 336-350.
  • Renton Alex et al. Suffering the Science: climate change, people and poverty, Oxfam briefing paper 130, 2009.
  • Dash S.K. and Hunt J.C.R., Variability of climate change in India, Current Science, 2007, 93, 782.
  • Singh S.P., Singh Vishal, Skutsch Margaret. Rapid warming in the Himalayas: Ecosystem responses and development options. Climate and Development, 2010, 2, 3, 2010, 221-232.
  • Armando L. (2014) Climate Change, Adaptation and Water in the Central Andes in: Sanchis-Ibor C., Palau-Salvador G., Mangue Alferez I., Martinez-Sanmartin L.P. (Eds.) Irrigation, Society, Landscape. Tribute to Thomas F. Glick, Valencia, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, 2014. doi:
  • Vuille M., Francou B., Wagnon P., Juen I., Kaser G., Mark B.G. & Bradley R.S. (2008): Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future. Earth-Science Reviews, 89, 79-96.
  • Van der Hammen T., Pabón J.D., Gutiérrez H., Alarcón J.C., (2002). Cambio Global en los ecosistemas de alta montańa en Colombia. In: C. Castańo. (Ed.). Paramos Ecosistemas alto andinos de Colombia. Ministerio del Medio Ambiente /IDEAM/ PNUD. Bogota.
  • Rhoades R. (2008): Disappearance of the glacier on mama cotacachi: Ethnoecological research and climate change in the Ecuadorian Andes. Pirineos, 37-50.
  • Schulte M., Magne F., Torrico A., Paz L. & Cespedes R. (1998). La Producción Agrícola en la Región Kallawaya. Instituto de Ecología, Universidad mayor de San Andrés. Offset Boliviana Ltda. EDOBOL Publisher, La Paz, Bolivia.
  • Mittermeier R.A., Gils P.R., Hoffman M., Pilgrim J., Brooks T., Mittermeier C.G., Lamoreaux J., Da Fonseca G.A.B. (eds.), Hotspots Revisited. Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endnagered Terrestrial Ecoregions. 2004 USA: CEMEX.
  • Mehta P.S., Negi K.S. & Ojha S.N. Native Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Foods of Uttarakhand Himalaya for sustainable food Security and Livelihood. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2010, 1, 89-96.
  • Altieri M.A. (1995) Agro-ecology puts synergy to work to create selfsustaining agroecosystem. Ceres FAO Review 154, 27, 15-23.
  • Ramakrishnan P.S. & Saxena K.G. Managing biodiversity for sustainable development in the Himalaya. In: Ramakrishnan P.S., Purohit A.N., Saxena K.G., Rao K.S., Maikhuri R.K., ed. Conservation and Management of Biological Resources in Himalaya, IBH, Oxford, 1996, 5-26.
  • Das Anup, P.K. Ghosh, B.U. Choudhury, D.P. Patel, G.C. Munda, S.V. Ngachan and Pulakabha Chowdhury, (2006) Climate change in northeast India: recent facts and events-worry for agricultural management, ISPRS Archives XXXVIII-8/ W3 Workshop Proceedings: Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture.
  • Das P.J. and Goswami D.C., (2003) Long-term variability of rainfall over northeast India. Indian Journal of Landscape Systems and Ecological Studies, 26(1):1-20. 8.
  • Sati V.P. 2014. Practices of Shifting Cultivation and its Implications in Mizoram, North-East India: A Review of Existing Research, Nature and Environment, Vol 19(2), Pp. 179-187. ISSN: 2321-810X (Print), 2321-8738 (Online),
  • Sati V.P. Extreme Weather Related Disasters: A Case Study of Two Flashfloods Hit Areas of Badrinath and Kedarnath Valleys, Uttarakhand Himalaya, India, Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, 2013, 3, 562-568.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.