Private Lessons as an Instrument for Middle Class Status Struggle in Post-socialist Societies : Poland and Ukraine Case Studies
The aim of the article is to present the results of the research on taking private lessons among Polish and Ukrainian youth. The research was conducted in Polish-Ukrainian borderlands among upper secondary school graduates, with the use of survey method. 717 respondents were Polish, whereas 584 were Ukrainian. The results of research show that 62% of Polish students were taking private lessons, while in the Ukraine the number was 69%. Private lessons were taken especially by the students whose parents were educated, had higher positions at work and overall better economic background. The respondents taking private lessons had higher level of cultural capital measured by the number of books, better school achievements and high educational aspirations. The main purpose of taking private lessons was to increase the potential maturity exam results and to have further more chances of entering a prestigious university. The research reveals that the main adaptation strategy of the middle class confronting educational inflation and the risk of declassing is increasing educational expenditures. Eventually, such actions lead to further widening of education gap. (original abstract)
- Ball, S. (2003), Class strategies and the education market: The middle classes and social advantage, London: Routledge Farmer.
- Bernstein, B. (1990), Reconstructing culture, Warsaw: PIW.
- Boguszewski, R. (2013), Perceiving one's place in the social structure, Warsaw, CBOS, http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2013/K_163_13.PDF (referred on 9.01.2015).
- Borodchuk, N. (2011), Shadow education: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the impact of the educational reform (implementation of centralized standardised testing) on private tutoring in Ukraine, Working papers series 11-117, Development Studies Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, London.
- Boudon, R. (2008), The inversion effect. The unintended consequences of social action, Warsaw: Oficyna Naukowa.
- Bourdieu, P. (2005), Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste, Warsaw: Scholar.
- Bourdieu, P., Passeron, J. C. (2006), Reproduction in education, culture and society, Warsaw: PWN.
- Bray, M. (1999), The shadow education system: private tutoring and implications for planners. Fundamentals of Educational Planning, No 61, IIEP UNESCO, Paris.
- Bray, M. (2012), Confronting the shadow education system: what government policies for what private tutoring? Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer business.
- Collins, R. (1979), The credential society, New York: Academic Press.
- Długosz, P. (2012), Private lessons of school-leavers in the years 2008-2011, Kultura i Edukacja, 2, pp. 87-106.
- Długosz, P. (2015), Private tutoring as the middle classes' defence against social degradation based on the example of the community of the Sub-Carpathian region, Pedagogika Społeczna, 2, pp. 111-129.
- Długosz, P. (2015), The phenomenon of transborder education as illustrated by the example of Ukrainian students in the Podkarpacie region, Youth policy: problems and prospects, 6, pp. 147-161.
- Domański, H. (1994), Societies of the middle class, Warsaw: IFiS PAN.
- Domański, H. (2004), Social structure, Warsaw: Scholar.
- Domański, H. (2014), Modern Polish middle class, http://www.instytutobywatelski.pl/5038/lupa-instytutu/nowa-polska-klasa-srednia, (referred on, 3.03.2015).
- Dore, R. (1976), The Diploma Disease: education, qualification and development, London: George Allen and Unwin.
- Goldthorpe, J. H. (2012), On Sociology, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Hirsch, F. (1977), The Social Limits to Growth, London: Routledge.
- http://www.gfk.com/ukua/insights/news/doslidzhennja-molod-ukrajini-2015 (referred on, 12.01.2016).
- International Statistics Yearbook 2015 (2015), Warsaw: Central Statistical Office of Poland.
- Izdebska-Długosz, D. (2015), Life plans of the young Ukrainians starting their studies in Poland, Youth policy: problems and prospects, 6, pp. 228-238.
- Jokić, B. (Ed.) (2013), Emerging from the shadow: A Comparative Qualitative Exploration of Private Tutoring in Eurasia, Zagreb: Network of Education Policy Centers (NEPC).
- Mishchenko, М. (2008), Middle class: Self-identification in the social structure, National Security and Defence, 7, pp. 5-13.
- Oksamytna, С. М. (2015), The citizens' self-identification in the social structure of ukrainian society, Grani, 1, pp. 67-72.
- Oliinyk, O. V. (2013), Paradoxes Of Modern Ukrainian High School, Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Sociology, 7, pp. 263-269.
- Oller, A. C. Glasman, D. (2013), Education as a Market in France: Forms and Stakes of Private Tutoring, In: M. Bray, A. E. Mazawi and R. G. Sultana (eds.), Private Tutoring across the Mediterranean: Power Dynamics and Implications for Learning and Equity, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. 77-91.
- Prakhov, I., Yudkevich, M. (2012), University admission in Russia: Do the wealthier benefit from standardized exams? Basic Research Program, Working Papers, Series: Education, Moscow, https://ideas.repec.org/p/hig/wpaper/04edu2012.html (referred on, 22.03.2015.
- Prakhov, I. (2014), Effects of Investments in Preparation Courses on the USE Scores, Educational Studiem, 3, pp. 74-99.
- Sadura, P. (2012), Multiplicity in unity: middle class and its diversification, In: M. Gdula, P. Sadura (red.), Lifestyles and class order in Poland, Warsaw: Scholar.
- Silova, I, Bray, M. (2006), The Context: Societies and Education in the Post-Socialist Transformation, In: I. Silova, B. Budiene, M. Bray (Eds.), Education in a hidden marketplace: Monitoring of private tutoring, Budapest: Education Support Program of the Open Society Institute Network of Education Policy Centers, pp. 41-61.
- Silova, I., Eklof, B. (2012), Education in Eastern and Central Europe: Re-Thinking Post-Socialism in the Context of Globalization, In: R. F. Arnove, C. Alberto, T., S. Franz (eds.), Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local, Maryland: Lanham Rowman & Littlefield Publisher, pp. 379-402.
- Southgate, D. E. (2009), Determinants of Shadow Education: A Cross-National Analysis, Electronic Thesis or Dissertation. Ohio State University, 2009, https://etd.ohiolink.edu, (referred on 23.03.2015).
- Standing, G. (2015), A Precariat Charakter: From Denizens to Citizens, London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
- Youth of Ukraine - 2015 (2015), Kyiv. http://pjpeu.coe.int/documents/1017981/8998199/Youth_Ukraine_2015_EN.pdf/af759b97-0947-460d-a4a1-51348b68ca58, (referred on 12.01.2016).
- Zhang, W. (2013), Private supplementary tutoring received by grade 9 students in Chongqing, China: determinants of demand, and policy implications, Diss, The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong), http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/196487/2/FullText.pdf?accept=1, (referred on 12.02.2015).
- Ziółkowski, M. (2000), Changes of interests and values of Polish society: theories, tendencies, interpretations, Poznań: Wydawnictwo Humaniora.