Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2010 | 2 | nr 1 | 97--108
Tytuł artykułu

The Invisible Power

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Women have made enormous progress for the last several decades substantially marking their presence in management and making inroads in the upper echelons of corporations. Interestingly, the latest concepts of transformational leadership, participative, flexible and relational, expose the salience of attributes traditionally perceived as feminine. Nonetheless, women tend to be overrepresented at the bottom of organizational hierarchy and underrepresented at the top. The paper explores the issue of low visibility of women in leadership positions addressing selected factors that contribute to still prevalent invisibility of women business leaders. The paper examines frequently indicated sources of women's underrepresentation: ender-triggered stereotypes in operation at the workplace, factors reinforcing stereotypes, lack of critical management experience, exclusion from decision-making and support networks and the lack of motivation to aggressively pursue existing opportunities. Social identity theory, object relation theory and visibility-vulnerability spiral are applied to gain insight into the problem of women's invisibility at the upper corporate echelons. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Społeczna Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Zarządzania
  • Aker S., 1983. Women, the other academics. Women's Studies International Forum, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 191-202.
  • Alban-Metcalfe B.M., 1989. What motivates managers? An investigation by gender and sector of employment. Public Administration, Vol. 678, No. 1, pp. 95-108.
  • Alimo-Metcalfe B., 1995. Leadership and assessment [in:] Vinnicombe S. & Colwill N.L. (eds.), The Essence of Women in Management. London: Prentice Hall, pp. 92-109.
  • Andrews P.H., 1992. Sex and gender differences in group communications: Impact on the facilitation process. Small Group Research, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 74-94.
  • Badarraco J., 2001. We don't need another hero. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 79, No. 8, pp. 120-126.
  • Baker Miller J., 1991. The development of women's sense of self [in:] J.V. Jordan, A.G. Kaplan, J.B. Stiver, J.L. Surray (eds.), Women's Growth in Connection, New York: Guilford, pp. 11-26.
  • Bass B.M., Avolio B.J., Atwater L., 1996. The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women. Applied Psychology: International Review, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 5-34.
  • Bayes M., Newton P., 1985. Women in authority: A sociopsychological analysis [in:] A. Colman, M. Geller (eds.), Group Relations Reader, Jupiter, Fl: A.K. Rice Institute, Vol. 2, pp. 309-322.
  • Bowles H.R., McGinn K.L., 2005. Claiming Authority: Negotiating Challenges for Women Leaders [in:] The Psychology of Leadership: New Perspectives and Research, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 195-196.
  • Bowman G.W., Worthy N.B., Greyser S.A., 1965. Are women executives people? Harvard Business Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 164-178.
  • Branson L., 2002, March 17. Reform of the bully brodas. The Boston Globe Magazine, pp. 12-17.
  • Catalyst, Catalyst census in number of women corporate officers in America's largest 500 companies, 2002, November 19. Available at:
  • Cox T. Jr., 1993. Cultural diversity in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler, pp. 80-120.
  • Deal J.J., Stevenson M.A., 1998. Perceptions of female and male managers in the 1990s: Plus ca change. Sex Roles, No. 38, pp. 287-300.
  • Dovidio J.F., Ellyson S.L., Keating C.F., Heltman K., 1988. The relationship of social power to visual displays of dominance between men and women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 233-242.
  • Eagly A.H., Karau S.J., 1991. Gender and the emergence of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 60, No. 5, pp. 685-710.
  • Eagly A.H., Karau S.J., 2002. Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, Vol. 109, No. 5, pp. 573-598.
  • Eagly A.H., Makhijani M.G., Klonsky B.G., 1992. Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 111, No. 1, pp. 3-22.
  • Eagly A., Karau S., Makhijiani M., 1995. Gender and the effectiveness of leaders. A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 125-145.
  • European Commission DG EMPL. Cited after: The situation of Women. International Comparisons. Report 13, 2003, p. 14, Available at:
  • Eurostat, Labour Force Survey. Situation of Women. International Comparisons, Report 13, 2004, pp. 14- 17, Available at:
  • Financing Women Entrepreneurs [in:] OECD Small and Medium Enterprise Outlook, Geneva 2000, pp. 53-63.
  • Fletcher J.K., 2003. The Greatly Exaggerated Demise of Heroic Leadership: Gender, Power and the Myth of the Female Advantage [in:] Reader in Gender, Work, and Organization. Oxford UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 204-210.
  • Haslam S.A., 2002. Psychology in organization. The social identity approach. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3/4, pp. 167-168.
  • Haw Siu Chow I.H., Crowford R.B., 2004. Gender, ethnic diversity and career advancement in the workplace: The social identity perspective. SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 69, No. 3, p. 224.
  • Helgensen S., 1995. The Female Advantage: Women's Ways of Leadership, New York: Currency Doubleday, p. 5.
  • Kanter R., 1977. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic, pp. 110-120.
  • Kent R.I., Moss S.E., 1994. Effects on sex and gender role on leader emergence. Academic Management Journal, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 1335-60.
  • Kolb D.M., 1992. Women's work. Peacemaking in organizations [in:] D.M. Kolb, J.M. Bartunek (eds.), Hidden conflict in organizations: Uncovering behind the scenes disputes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 63-91.
  • Kram K.E., McCollom Hampton M., 2003. When Women Lead: The Visibility-Vulnerability Spiral [in:] R.J. Ely, E.G. Foldy, M.A. Scully (eds.), Reader in Gender, Work and Organization, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 211-223.
  • Krishnan H.A., Park D., 2005. A few good women on top management teams. J Bus Res, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 1712-1720.
  • Loden M., 1997. Feminine Leadership or How to Succeed in Business without Being One of the Boys. New York: Times Books, p. 79.
  • Neubert M.J., 1999. Too much of a good thing or the more the merrier? Exploring the dispersion and gender composition of informal leadership in manufacturing teams. Small Group Research, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 635-646.
  • Palmer T., Varner M., Iris I., 2007, January. A comparison of the international diversity on top management teams of multinational firms based in the United States, Europe and Asia: status and implications. Singapore Management Review. No. 1, p. 20.
  • Pfeffer J., Power in Organizations, Pitman, Marshfield, MA 1981, pp. 56-70.
  • Powell G.N., Butterfield D.A., Parent J.D., 2002. Gender and managerial stereotypes: Have the times changed? Journal of Management, No. 28, pp. 177-193.
  • Powell G.N., Graves L.M., 2003. Women and Men in Management. London: Sage Publications, pp. 133-156.
  • Rhode D., 2003. The Difference "difference" makes [in:] R.J. Ely, E.G. Foldy, M.A. Scully, (eds.), Reader in Gender, Work and Organizations, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., p. 161.
  • Ridgeway C.L., 2001. Gender, status and leadership. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 637-655.
  • Rudman L.A., Glick P., 2001. Perspective gender stereotypes and backlash towards agentic women: The hidden costs to women of a kinder gentler image of middle managers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 77, No. 4, pp. 1004-1010.
  • Rudman L.A., 1998. Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counter-stereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 629-645.
  • Schein V.E., 1973. The relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics: a cross-cultural look. Journal of Applied Psychology, No. 57, pp. 95-100.
  • Schien V.E., 2001. A global look at psychological barriers to women's progress in management. Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 675-688.
  • Segal J., 1992. Mslanis Klsin, Newbury Park, CA: Sage, p. 36.
  • Simmons W.W., 2001, January 11. When it comes to choosing a boss, Americans still prefer men. Gallup News Service.
  • Sutton C.D., More K.K., 1985. Executive women - 20 years later. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 42-66.
  • Wallston B.S., O'Leary V.E., 1981. Sex makes a difference: differential perceptions of women and men [in:] L. Whitter (ed.) Reviewing Personality and Social Psychology, No. 2, pp. 9-41.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.