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2015 | 31 | 81--97
Tytuł artykułu

Central and East European Countries as Transit or Final Destinations of Migrant and Refugee Flows in Europe - Trends, Causes and Social Impact from the Bulgarian Perspective

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Focusing on the case of Bulgaria, this paper examines the trends, causes and social impacts of transitory migration, and especially that of asylum seekers and refugees, in Bulgaria as part of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) region and the broader EU context. It provides a statistical overview of refugee flows since 2012 and indicators of the rates of retention or transition. The paper also describes the legislative frameworks on the EU - and national levels which define the required reception conditions and the procedural treatment of asylum seekers and refugees, and elaborates on their practical application, including deficiencies in the conditions for receiving refugees, procedural flaws and the lack of integration measures. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of these processes on Bulgarian society, including the role of civil society. (original abstract)
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Opis fizyczny
  • Center for Legal Aid - Voice in Bulgaria
  • Center for Legal Aid - Voice in Bulgaria
  • Bulgarian Helsinki Committee (2014), Гoдишeн дoклад за наблюдeниe на пpoизвoдcтвoтo за пpeдocтавянe на мeждунаpoдна закpила в Бългаpия [Annual Monitoring Report on the Procedure for Granting International Protection in Bulgaria], Bulgarian Helsinki Committee, 2014 rsd_reports/2014_annual_rsd_monitoring_report_bg.pdf.
  • COE HR Commissioner (2013), Syrian refugees: a neglected human rights crisis in Europe, Human Rights Comment, Commissioner for Human Rights, 20 December 2013, en web commissioner b log-2013.
  • COE HR Commissioner (2015a), Bulgaria on 9 to 11 February 2015, Commissioner for Human Rights, 22 June 2015,
  • COE HR Commissioner (2015b), Report by Nils Muižnieks, Commissioner of Human Rights of the Council of Europe, following his visit to Bulgaria on 9 ti 11 February 2015, Commissioner for Human Rights, 22 June 2015,
  • European Commission (2008), Regions 2020: Demographic challenge for European regions, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, November 2008, p. 6-8, http://
  • European Commission (2015), A European Agenda on Migration, European Commission, Brussels, 13.05.2015, COM(2015) 240 final, on_the_european_agenda_on_migration_en.pdf.
  • Eurostat (2014), Incoming "Dublin" transfers by submitting country, legal provision and duration of transfer, updated on 16.07.2015,
  • HRW (2014), Containment Plan: Bulgaria's Pushbacks and Detention of Syrian and Other Asylum Seekers and Migrants, Human Rights Watch, April 30, 2014, https://www.hrw. org/report/2014/04/28/containment-plan/bulgarias-pushbacks-and-detention-syrianand- other-asylum-seekers.
  • JRS (2013), Protection interrupted: the Dublin regulation's impact on asylum seekers' protection (The DIASP project), The Jesuit Refugee Service, published in June 2013, https://
  • MVR (2013), Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Bulgaria, Oтчeт за изпълнeниeтo на кoнкpeтнитe мepки пo Плана за oвладяванe на кpизиcната cитуация, възникнала вcлeдcтвиe на заcилeния мигpациoнeн натиcк към тepитopията на Peпублика Бългаpия (пpиeт oт Миниcтepcкия cъвeт c пpoтoкoлнo peшeниe № 45/06.11.2013 г.) [Report on the implementation of specific measures in the Plan for crisis management, occurred as a result of increased migratory pressure on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria (adopted by the Council of Ministers by a decision № 45 / 06.11.2013)], [access: 29.08.2015].
  • MVR (2014), Mиниcтepcтвo на вътpeшнитe pабoти, Главна диpeкция "Гpанична пoлиция", Peзюмe: Aнализ на pиcка 2014 [Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Bulgaria, Directorate-General "Border Police", Summary: Risk Analysis 2014], p. 4, [access: 29.08.2015].
  • MultiKulti (2014), Monitoring Report on the Integration of Beneficiaries of International Protection in the Republic of Bulgaria in 2014, MultiKulti Collective, December 2014, http:// pdf.
  • Patriutu-Baltes, L. (2014), The brain drain phenomenon in EU, "One Europe" 11 September,
  • UNHCR (2014a), UNHCR observations on the current asylum system in Bulgaria, UNHCR, January 2, 2014,
  • UNHCR (2014b), Bulgaria: UNHCR says asylum conditions improved, warns against transfer of vulnerable people, UNHCR, Brief Notes, 15 April 2014,
  • UNC Convention (1951), Convention relating to the Status of Refugees adopted on 28 July 1951.
  • Directive (2008), Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals.
  • Directive (2011), Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted.
  • Directive (2013a), Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection.
  • Directive (2013b), Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection.
  • EU Regulation (2013), Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person.
  • The Treaty on European Union (TEU, Maastricht Treaty, effective since 1993) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU, Treaty of Paris, effective since 1958).
  • Van Gend en Loos (Case 26/62 NV Algemene Transport en Expeditie Onderneming van Gen den Loos v Nederlandse Administratie der Belastingen [1963] ECR 1). Costa vs. ENEL (Case 6/64 Flaminio Costa v ENEL [1964] ECR 585).
  • Blitz (2015), Пpecтъпни гpупи въpтят имигpациoнния пoтoк у наc [Criminal groups manage the migration flow here], "Blitz", 30 July, 2015,
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  • bTV News (2015b), Another Refugee Protest at the Ovcha Kupel Centre, bTV News, April 29, 2015,
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