Polish Migrant Children's Transcultural Lives and Transnational Language Use
This paper addresses the issue of language and belonging in the transnational context of migration. It draws on two research projects with first-generation children of Polish labour migrants in Scotland. The paper examines the role that language plays in fostering multiple ways of being and belonging, and in understanding how children make sense of their identity. It suggests that language should take a more central place in debates about cultural connectivity and transnational migration. Findings point to the need for a more holistic approach to supporting migrant children, including the explicit recognition of family cultural and language capital in the host society. (original abstract)
- Agnew V. (2005), Diaspora, Memory and Identity: A Search for Home. Toronto: The University of Toronto Press.
- Anning A., Ring K. (2004), Making Sense of Children's Drawings. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Anthias F. (2011), Intersections and Translocations: New Paradigms for Thinking About Cultural Diversity and Social Identities. European Educational Research Journal 10(2): 204-217.
- Baker C. (2000), A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
- Bhabha H. K. (1994), The Location of Culture. London: Routledge.
- Blommaert J., Creve L., Willaert E. (2006), On Being Declared Illiterate: Language-Ideological Disqualification in Dutch Class for Immigrants in Belgium. Language & Communication 26(1): 34-54.
- Christiansen P., James A. (eds) (2000), Research with Children: Perspectives and Practices. London: Falmer Press.
- Condradson D., Mckay D. (2007), Editorial. Special Issue: Translocal Subjectivities: Mobility, Connection, Emotion. Mobilities 2(2): 167-174.
- Cummins J. (2000), Language, Power, and Pedagogy. Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
- den Besten O. (2010), Local Belonging and 'Geographies of Emotions': Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin. Childhood 17(2): 181-195.
- Devine D. (2009), Mobilising Capitals? Migrant Children's Negotiation of Their Everyday Lives in School. British Journal of Sociology of Education 30(5): 521-535.
- Devine D. (2011), Securing Migrant Children's Educational Well-Being: Policy and Practice in Irish Schools, in: D. Devine (ed.), Ethnic Minority Children and Youth in Ireland, pp. 73-87. Amsterdam: Springer.
- Fassetta G. (2014), The Social and Symbolic Aspects of Languages in the Narratives of Young (Prospective) Migrants. Language and Intercultural Communication 14(3): 322-338.
- Favell A. (2008), The New Face of East-West Migration in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34(5): 701-716.
- Gal S. (2006), Migration, Minorities, and Multilingualism: Language Ideologies in Europe, in: C. Mar-Molinaro, P. Stevenson (eds), Language Ideologies, Practices and Policies: Language and the Future of Europe, pp. 13-27. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
- Guarnizo L. E. (1997), The Emergence of a Transnational Social Formation and the Mirage of Return Migration Among Dominican Transmigrants. Identities (Yverdon) 4(2): 281-322.
- Gutiérrez K. D., Morales P. Z., Martinez D. C. (2009), Remediating Literacy: Culture, Difference, and Learning for Students from Nondominant Communities. Review of Research in Education 33(1): 212-245.
- Harrison L., Clarke L., Ungerer J. (2007), Children's Drawings Provide a New Perspective on Linkages Between Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and School Adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 22(1): 55-71.
- Hébert Y. (2005), Transculturalism Among Canadian Youth, in: D. Hoerder, Y. Hébert, I. Schmitt (eds), Negotiating Transcultural Lives. Belonging and Social Capital Among Youth in Comparative Perspective, pp.103-128. Toronto Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.
- Hoerder D., Hébert Y., Schmitt I. (eds) (2005), Negotiating Transcultural Lives. Belonging and Social Capital Among Youth in Comparative Perspective. Toronto Buffalo: University of Toronto Press.
- James A., Jenks C., Prout A. (1998), Theorising Childhood. Bristol: Polity Press.
- James A., Prout A. (1990), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. London: Falmer Press.
- Lam W. S. E., Warriner D. S. (2012), Transnationalism and Literacy: Investigating the Mobility of People, Languages, Texts, and Practices in Contexts of Migration. Reading Research Quarterly 47(2): 191-215.
- Lopez Rodriguez M. (2010), Migration and a Quest for 'Normalcy', Polish Migrant Mothers and the Capitalization of Meritocratic Opportunities in the UK. Social Identities 16(3): 339-358.
- McGonigal J., Arizpe E. (2007), Learning to Read a New Culture: How Immigrant Children and Asylum Seeking Children Experience Scottish Identity Through Classroom Books. Edinburgh: Scottish Government.
- Mitchell L. M. (2006), Child-Centred? Thinking Critically About Children's Drawings as a Visual Research Method. Visual Anthropology Review 22(1): 60-73.
- Morrow V. (2008), Ethical Dilemmas in Research with Children and Young People About Their Social Environments. Children's Geographies 6(1): 49-61.
- Moskal M. (2010), Visual Methods in Researching Migrant Children's Experiences of Belonging. Migration Letters 7(1): 17-32.
- Moskal M. (2014a), Language and Cultural Capital in School Experience of Polish Children in Scotland. Race, Ethnicity and Education, May 15, 2014, doi: 10.1080/13613324.2014.911167 .
- Moskal M. (2014b), Polish Migrant Youth in Scottish Schools: Conflicted Identity and Family Capital. Journal of Youth Studies 17(2): 279-291.
- Moskal M. (2015), 'When I Think Home I Think Family Here and There': Translocal and Social Ideas of Home in Narratives of Migrant Children and Young People. Geoforum 58: 143-152.
- Moskal M., Tyrrell N. (2015) (in press), Family Migration Decision-Making, Step-Migration and Separation: Children's Experiences in European Migrant Worker Family. Children Geographies.
- Ní Laoire C., Bushin N., Carpena-Mendez F., White A. (2009), Tell Me About Yourself: Migrant Children's Experiences of Moving to and Living in Ireland. Cork: UCC.
- Ní Laoire C., Carpena-Mendez F., Tyrrell N., White A. (2011), Childhood and Migration in Europe: Portraits of Mobility, Identity and Belonging in Contemporary Ireland. Farnham: Ashgate.
- Orellana M. F., Thorne B., Chee A., Lam W. S. E. (2001), Transnational Childhoods: The Participation of Children in Processes of Family Migration. Social Problems 48(4): 573-592.
- Phinney J. S., Romero I., Nava M., Huang D. (2001), The Role of Language, Parents, and Peers in Ethnic Identity Among Adolescents in Immigrant Families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 30(2): 135-152.
- Portes, A. And Rumbaut, R. (2001), Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press and Russell Sage Foundation.
- Praszalowicz D., Irek M., Malek A., Napierala P., Pustulka P., Pylat J. (2012), Polskie szkolnictwo w Wielkiej Brytanii. PAU Online Report. Online: http://pau.krakow.pl/index.php/en/20130207191/Polskie-szkolnictwo-w-Wiel... (accessed: 30 April 2015),
- Rampton B. (2006), Language in Late Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Reay D., Lucey H. (2000), Children, School Choice and Social Differences. Educational Studies 26(1): 83-100.
- Rouse R. (1992), Making Sense of Settlement: Class Transformation, Cultural Struggle, and Transnationalism Among Mexican Migrants in the United States. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 645: 25-52.
- Rumbaut R. G. (2002), Severed or Sustained Attachments? Language, Identity and Imagined Communities in the Post-Immigrant Generation, in: P. Levitt, M. C. Waters (eds), The Changing Face of Home. The Transnational Lives of the Second Generation, pp. 43-95. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Ryan L., Sales R. (2011), Family Migration: The Role of Children and Education in Family Decision-Making Strategies of Polish Migrants in London. International Migration 50(2): 90-103.
- Ryan L., Sales R., Tilki M., Siara B. (2009), Family Strategies and Transnational Migration: Recent Polish Migrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35(10): 61-77.
- Scottish Government (2014), Pupil Census Supplementary Data. Online: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/School-Education/dspupcensus (accessed: 25 January 2015),
- Sime D., Fox R. (2015a), Eastern European Children's Family and Peer Relationships after Migration. Childhood, 22(3): 377-393.
- Sime D., Fox R. (2015b), Migrant Children, Social Capital and Access to Public Services: Transitions, Negotiations and Complex Agencies. Children & Society, 29(6): 524-534.
- Sime D., Pietka-Nykaza E. (2015), Transnational Intergenerationalities: Cultural Learning in Polish Migrant Families and Its Implications for Pedagogy. Language and Intercultural Communication 15(2): 208-223.
- Skutnabb-Kangas T. (2000), Linguistic Genocide in Education - or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Sobków W. (2014), Learning Polish - the UK's Second Most Spoken Language - Is a Plus. The Guardian, Education, June 5, http://www.theguardian.com/education/2014/jun/05/learning-polish-a-plus-... (accessed: 12 June 2014),
- Suárez-Orozco M. M., Darbes T., Dias S. I., Sutin M. (2011), Migration and Schooling. Annual Review of Anthropology 40: 311-328.
- Suárez-Orozco C., Suárez-Orozco M. M. (2001), Transnationalism of the Heart: Familyhood Across Borders, in: D. Cere, L. McClain (eds), What is Parenthood? Competing Models for Understanding Today's Revolution in Parenthood. London: Cambridge University Press.
- Suárez-Orozco C., Suárez-Orozco M., Todorova I. (2008), Learning a New Land: Immigrant Students in the American Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Valentine G., Skelton T. (2007), The Right to Be Heard: Citizenship and Language. Political Geography 26: 121-140.
- Valentine G., Sporton D., Bang Nielsen K. (2008), Language Use on the Move: Sites of Encounter, Identities and Belonging. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 33(3): 376-387.
- van Blerk L., Ansell N. (2006), Imagining Migration: Placing Children's Understanding of 'Moving House' in Malawi and Lesotho. Geoforum 37(2): 256-272.
- Vertovec S. (2004), Migrant Transnationalism and Modes of Transformation. International Migration Review 38(3): 970-1001.
- Voigt-Graf C. (2004), Towards a Geography of Transnational Spaces: Indian Trans-National Communities in Australia. Global Networks 4(1): 25-49.
- Voigt-Graf C. (2005), The Construction of Transnational Spaces by Indian Migrants in Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31(2): 365-384.
- White A. (2011), Polish Families and Migration Since EU Accession. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.
- White A., Bushin N., Carpena-Mendez J., Ní Laoire C. (2010), Using Visual Methods to Explore Contemporary Irish Childhoods. Qualitative Research 10(2): 143-158.
- Willard J., Leyendecker B. (2013), Heritage Languages: Why Are They Important and What Can Families Do to Maintain Them? NORFACE, Migration: New Developments. Online: www.nortface.net.