Sex Differences in Work Experiences and Work Outcomes among Egyptian Managers and Professionals : an Exploratory Study
This research examined potential sex differences in work experiences and work outcomes in a sample of Egyptian managers and professionals. Relatively little research has been undertaken on potential sex differences in human resource management in Egyptian organizations and even less during and following the Arab spring. Data were collected from 121 managerial and professional employees, 77 males and 44 females, using anonymously completed questionnaires. Respondents were relatively young, had university educations, had short job and organizational tenures, and held lower level -management jobs. All measures employed here had been used and validated previously by other researchers. Work experiences included supervisor empowerment behaviors and levels of personal empowerment. Work and well-being outcomes included job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work engagement, exhibiting voice behaviors, workplace learning opportunities, intent to quit and employee health symptoms. Significant sex differences were present on most personal demographic and work situation characteristics: men were at higher organizational levels, earned more money, were older and had longer organizational tenures, among others. There were fewer significant sex differences on work experiences and work outcomes. When differences were observed here, women indicated less positive responses. (original abstract)
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