Contemporary foundations of the theory of urban development - case study smart, slow and compact city theory
The issue of the concept of development and urban planning in an optimal manner is as old as cities. It has not yet been established which human activities are to be considered as conscious and planned space development. It is assumed that the beginnings of rational, thoughtful urban planning should be sought at a time when cities began to be treated as a single organism, which should function smoothly, guarantee the safety of its inhabitants through defence functions and provide a higher standard of living. The effect of these assumptions was the logical placement of buildings, transportation systems and infrastructure, as well as recreational areas so that life in the city was something more than just miserable existence. This article overlooks former planning theories such as the theories of location by J.H. von Thunen or A. Weber, as well as the projects of a garden city by E. Howard and Functional Warsaw by J. Chmielewski and S. Syrkus. Instead, it focuses on what is currently, at the beginning of the 21st century, up to date and combines contemporary concepts of sustainability and new technologies, and treats the city as a resource of limited space, buildings, infrastructure and people representing both purchasing power and the labour force. The article, apart from theoretical considerations, focused on realizations of ideas in practice, quoting both sectoral solutions related to the organization of transportation in the city, as well as to projects of entire cities.(original abstract)
- Azkuna I. 2012. Smart Cities study: International study on the situation of ICT, innovation and knowledge in cities. Bilbao.
- Bury P., Markowski T., Regulski J. 1993. Podstawy ekonomiki miasta. Fund. Rozwoju Przedsięb., Łódź.
- Caragliu A., Del Bo C., Nijkamp P. 2009. Smart Cities in Europe. Ser. Res. Memoranda 0048, VU Univ. Amsterdam, Fac. Econ., Bus. Admin. Econometrics.
- Fook L.L., Gang C. (eds.) 2010. Towards a Liveable and Sustainable Urban Environment. Eco-Cities in East Asia Singapore. World Sci. Publ.
- Gerwin M. 2008. Plan zrównoważonego rozwoju dla Polski. Lokalne inicjatywy rozwojowe. Earth Conserv., Sopot.
- Giffinger R., Fertner C., Kramar H., Kalasek R., Pichler- Milanoviü N., Meijers E. 2007. Smart Cities: Ranking of European Medium-Sized Cities. Centre of Regional Science (SRF), Vienna Univ. Tech., Vienna.
- Knox P., Meyer H. 2009. Small Town Sustainability: Economic, Social and Environmental Innovation. Birkhauser.
- Komninos N. 2002. Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces. Spon Press. London.
- Lazaroiu G.C., Roscia M. 2012. Definition Methodology for the Smart City Model. Energy., 47(1): 326-332.
- Murray A., Minevich M., Abdoullaev A. 2011. Being Smart about Smart Cities. Searcher, 19(8), Special section.
- Parkins W., Craig G. 2006. Slow living. Berg. Oxford, New York.
- Roseland M. 1997. Dimensions of the eco city. [in:] Cities. Elsevier Sci. Ltd. 14(4): 199-202.
- Rysz K. 2013. Spatial planning in Ruda Śląska (master thesis), Univ. Econ. in Katowice, Katowice: 44-54.
- Węcławowicz-Bilska E. 2014. Polish cities of the future - trends, concepts, implementations. Tech. Transactions - architecture. 2-A: 307-326.
- http://cittaslowpolska.pl/international-network-of-cittaslocities (access 25.10.2015)
- http://kalety.pl/ (access 05.11.2015) http://uzdrowiskogoldap.pl/ (access 05.11.2015)