Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending
This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries. We conclude that defense expenditures in Greece and Turkey exceed the NATO average, but are relatively low relative to those of selected Middle Eastern countries. Our results indicate that high military spending level in Turkey is mainly driven by national security concerns, whereas an economic driver prevails in Greece. (original abstract)
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