Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2016 | nr 51 | 104--137
Tytuł artykułu

Organizational Culture and Open Innovation Performance in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Poland

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
This study investigates the links between organizational culture, the use of open innovation sources and the performance of SMEs. The main hypothesis of the study is that a special type of organizational culture (termed innovative culture), which fosters creativity, learning and inter-employee cooperation - will correspond with a greater scope of open innovation sources and higher levels of innovative, operational and financial performance. The study was based on a representative CATI survey of 473 SMEs operating in manufacturing and services industries in Poland. Our statistical analysis relied on building and testing structural equation model with the AMOS software. The findings confirmed a positive association between innovative culture and the scope of open sources of innovation. However, innovative culture had no direct effect on the percentage of sales from new and modified products, which is often used as a metric of innovativeness, but did show a positive influence on an index of operational performance and ROI. Such statistical patterns suggest that fostering innovative culture is beneficial to a company, though probably not through an increased number of product innovations, but rather via process, administrative and marketing innovations, as well as other gains in efficiency attained due to more streamlined employee cooperation and knowledge exchange. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge in management science by providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying innovative culture's impacts on open innovation practices and metrics of operational and financial performance in the context of small and medium enterprises. (original abstract)
Opis fizyczny
  • Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
  • Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
  • Alavi, M., Kaywortth, T. R., Leidner, D. E. (2005), An Empirical Examination of the Influence of Organizational Culture on Knowledge Management Practices, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 191-224. [Crossref]
  • Al Saifi, S. (2015), Positioning organizational culture in knowledge management research, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp. 164-189.
  • Ali, M., Kichan, P. (2016), The mediating role of an innovative culture in the relationship between absorptive capacity and technical and non-technical innovation, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 69, pp. 1669-1675. [Crossref]
  • Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., Herron, M. (1996), Assessing the work environment for creativity, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 1154-1185. [Crossref]
  • Angle, H. L. (1989), Psychology and organizational innovation, in: A. H. Van de Ven, H. L. Angle, M. S. Poole (eds.), Research on the management of innovation: The Minnesota studies, New Yok, Harper & Row, pp. 135-170.
  • Arthur D. Little's UK (2008), Innovation culture: maintaining a strong innovation culture during a downturn, Arthur D. Little's UK Technology and Innovation Management Practice, available at:
  • Baker, W. E., Sinkula, J. M. (1999), The Synergistic Effect of Market Orientation and Learning Orientation on Organizational Performance, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.411-427. [Crossref]
  • Baker, W. E., Sinkula, J. M. (2009), The complementary effect of market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on profitability in small business, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol.47 No.4, pp. 443-464. [Crossref]
  • Baker, W. E., Sinkula, J. M. (2002), Market Orientation, Learning Orientation and Product Innovation: Delving into the Organization's Black Box, Journal of Market-Focused Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 5-23.
  • Barney, J. (1986), Organizational culture: Can it Be a source of Sustained Competitive Advantage?, Academy of Management Review, 11 (July), pp. 656-665. [Crossref]
  • Bowen, N., Guo, S. (2012), Structural Equation Modeling: Pocket Guides to Social Research Methods, Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Bullinger, H.-J., Auernhammer, K., Gomeringer, A. (2004), Managing innovation networks in the knowledge-driven economy, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 42, No.17, pp. 3337-3353. [Crossref]
  • Byrne, B. (2010), Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications and Programming, Second Edition, Routledge, New York.
  • Calantone, R. J., Cavusgil, S. T., Zhao, Y. (2002), Learning orientation, firm innovation capability, and firm performance, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 31, No.6, pp. 515-524. [Crossref]
  • Cameron, K., Quinn, R. (1999), Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture. Based on the Competing Values Framework, Addison-Wesley, Boston, MA.
  • Chandler, G. (1993), Reward perceptions and the performance of emerging technology dependent and non-technology dependent manufacturing firms, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 63-76.
  • Chandler, G. N., Keller, Ch., Lyon, D. W. (2000), Unraveling the Determinants and Consequences of an Innovation-Supportive Organizational Culture, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, Fall, No. 59, pp. 59-76.
  • Chang, Ch.L-h, Lin, T-C. (2015), The role of organizational culture in the knowledge management process, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 433-455.
  • Cheng, C., Huizingh, E. (2014), When Is Open Innovation Beneficial? The Role of Strategic Orientation, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 1235-1253. [Crossref]
  • Chatzoudes, D., Chatzoglou, P., Vraimaki, E. (2015), The central role of knowledge management in business operations, Business Process Management Journal, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 1117-1139. [Crossref]
  • Chesbrough, H. (2003a), Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
  • Chesbrough, H. W. (2003b), Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
  • Chesbrough, H., Brunswicker, S. (2013), Executive Survey on Open Innovation 2013, available at:, accessed: September 1, 2014.
  • Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., West, J. eds. (2006), Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Conrad, C., Poole, M. (2012), Strategic organizational communication in a global economy (7th ed.), Preface, Belmont, CA, Thomson, Wadworth.
  • Damanpour, F., Gopalakrishnan, S. (2001), The dynamics of the adoption of product and process innovation in organizations, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 45-65. [Crossref]
  • Damanpour, F., Walker R. M., Avellaneda, C. N. (2005), Combinative Effects of Innovation Types and Organizational Performance: A Longitudinal Study of Service Organizations, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 46, pp. 650-675. [Crossref]
  • Darroch, J., Mc Naughton, R. (2001), Developing a Measure of Knowledge Management, in: N. Brontis (ed.), World Congress on Intellectual Capital Readings, Butterworth Heinemann, Boston.
  • De Long, D. (1997), Building the Knowledge-Based Organization: How Culture Drives Knowledge Behaviors, Working Paper, Center for Business Innovations, Ernst&Young.
  • DeLong, D., Fahey, L. (2000), Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledge management, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 113-127.
  • Denison, D. (1984), Bringing corporate culture to the bottom line, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 4-22. [Crossref]
  • Denison, D. (1990), Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Denison, D. (1996), What IS the difference between organizational culture and organizational climate? A native's point of view on a decade of paradigm wars, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 619-654.
  • Denison, D., Mishra, A. (1995), Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness, Organizational Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 204-223. [Crossref]
  • Denison, D. Janovics, J., Young, J., Cho, H. J. (2006), Diagnosing Organizational Cultures: Validating a Model and Method, available at:, accessed: July 2, 2016.
  • Denison, D. (2000), Organizational culture: Can it be a key lever for driving organizational change? in S. Cartwright, C. Cooper (eds.), The Handbook of Organizational Culture, London, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Deshpande, R., Jarley, U., Webster, F. (1993), Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese firms: a quadrat analysis, TheJournal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 23-37.
  • Deshpandé, R., Webster, Jr., F. E. (1989), Organizational Culture and Marketing: Defining the Research Agenda, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 3-15. [Crossref]
  • Dobni, C. B. (2008), Measuring innovation culture in organizations: The development of a generalized innovation culture construct using exploratory factor analysis, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 539-559.
  • Donate, M. J., Guadamillas, F. (2011), Organizational factors to support knowledge management and innovation, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 890-914.
  • Enkel, E., Gassmann, O. (2008), Driving open innovation in the front end. The IBM case, Working Paper, University of St. Gallen and Zeppelin University, St Gallen and Friedrichshafen.
  • Enkel, E., Gassmann, O. (2010), Creative imitation: exploring the case of cross-industry innovation, R&D Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 256-270.
  • Fey, C., Denison, D. R. (2003), Organizational culture and effectiveness: Can an American theory be applied in Russia?, Organization Science, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 686-706. [Crossref]
  • Flynn, F., Chatman, J. (2000), Strong cultures and innovation: Oxymoron or opportunity? in: C. Cooper, S. Cartwright, C. Earley (eds.), The International Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 263-288.
  • Foroughi, A., Buang, N. A., Senik, Z. C., Hajmirsadeghi, R. S., Bagheri, M. M. (2015), The role of open service innovation in enhancing business performance: the moderating effects of competitive intensity, Current Science, Vol. 109, No. 4, pp. 691-698.
  • Garriga, H., von Krog, G., Spaeth, S. (2013), How constraints and knowledge impact open innovation, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 34, pp. 1134-1144. [Crossref]
  • Garson D. (2012), Structural Equation Modeling: Statistical Association Publishing Blue Book Series, Statistical Association Publishing, Asheboro.
  • Garvin, D. A. (1993), Building a Learning Organization, Harvard Business Review, July-August, Vol. 71.
  • Gassman, O., Enkel, E., Chesbrough, H. (2010), The future of open innovation, R&D Management, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 213-221.
  • Gorman, L. (2007), Corporate culture, Management Decision, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 14-20.
  • Grawe, S., Chen, H., Daugherty, P. (2009), The relationship between strategic orientation, service innovation and performance, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 282-300.
  • Guan J., Ma, N. (2003), Innovative capability and export performance of Chinese firms, Technovation, Vol. 23, No. 9, pp. 737-747. [Crossref]
  • Gunday, G., Ulusoy, G., Kilic, K., Alpkan, L. (2011), Effects of innovation types on firm performance, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 133, No. 2, pp. 662-676. [Crossref]
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W, Babin, B., Anderson, R. (2009), Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  • Hatch, M. (1993), The dynamics of organizational culture, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 657-694.
  • Henard, D., Szymanski, D (2001), Why some new products are more successful than others, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 38, pp. 362-75. [Crossref]
  • Herkema, S. (2003), A complex adaptive perspective on learning within innovation projects, The Learning Organization, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 340-346.
  • Higgins, J. McAllaster, C. (2002), Want innovation? Then use cultural artifacts that support it, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 31, pp.74-84. [Crossref]
  • Hilman, H., Kalappen, N. (2015), Innovation strategies and performance: are they truly linked? World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp.48-63.
  • Hofstede, G., Neijen, B., Ohayv, DF.D., Sander, G. (1990), Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 286-316. [Crossref]
  • Homburg, Ch., Pflesser, Ch. (2000), A Multiple-Layer Model of Market-Oriented Organizational Culture: Measurement Issues and Performance Outcomes, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 449-462. [Crossref]
  • Huang, H.-Ch, Lai, M.-Ch., Lin, L.-H., Chen, Ch.-T. (2013), Overcoming Organizational Inertia to Strengthen Business Model Innovation, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 997-1002. [Crossref]
  • Huinzingh, E. K. (2011), Open innovation: State of art and future perspectives, Technovation, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 2-9. [Crossref]
  • Hurley, R. F., Hult, G. T. M. (1998), Innovation, Market Orientation, and Organizational Learning: An Integration and Empirical Examination, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62 (July), pp. 42-54. [Crossref]
  • Hult, G. T., Hurley, R. F., Knight, G. A. (2004), Innovativeness: Its antecedents and impact on business performance, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 429-438. [Crossref]
  • Janz, B. D., Prasarnphanich, P. (2003), Understanding the Antecedents of Effective Knowledge Management: The Importance of a Knowledge-Centered Culture, Decision Sciences, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 351-384. [Crossref]
  • Inauen, M., Schenker-Wicki, A. (2011), The impact of outside-in open innovation on innovation performance, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 496-520.
  • Jamrog, J., Vickers, M., Bear, D. (2006), Building and sustaining a culture that supports innovation, Human Resource Planning, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 9-19.
  • Jassawalla, A. R., Sashittal, H. C. (2002), Cultures that support product innovation processes, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 16, pp. 42-53. [Crossref]
  • Katila, R., Ahuja, G. (2002), Something old, something new: A longitudinal study of search behavior and new product introduction, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 1183-1194. [Crossref]
  • Koc, T., Ceylan, C. (2007), Factors impacting the innovative capacity in large-scale companies, Technovation, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 105-114. [Crossref]
  • Laforet, S. (2015), Effect of organizational culture on organizational innovation performance in family firms, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 379-407.
  • Laursen, K., Salter, A. (2006), Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.131-150. [Crossref]
  • Lettl, C., Herstatt, C., Gemuenden, H. G. (2006), Users' contributions to radical innovation: evidence from four cases in the field of medical equipment technology, R&D Management, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 251-272.
  • Lichtenthaler, U. (2009), Outbound open innovation and its effect on firm performance: examining environmental influences, R&D Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 317-330.
  • Malhotra, N. (2010), Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, Prentice Hall, 6th edition.
  • Martins, E. C., Terblanche, F. (2003), Building organizational culture that stimulates creativity and innovation, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 64-74.
  • Mazur, J., Rószkiewicz, M., Strzyżewska, M. (2008), Orientacja na wiedzę a wyniki ekonomiczne przedsiębiorstwa (Knowledge orientation vs firms performance), Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw.
  • Mazur, J., Rószkiewicz, M., Strzyżewska, M. (2011), Kompozycja działań związanych z wiedzą a wyniki ekonomiczne przedsiębiorstwa (Knowledge activities composition impact on firm's performance), Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw.
  • Mazur, J., Zaborek, P. (2015), Open Innovation in Small and Medium-Sized Polish Enterprises, in: M. A. Weresa, (ed.), Poland. Competitive Report, 2015, World Economy Research Institute, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw.
  • McCracken, J. (2006), "Why forward" requires culture shift at Ford, Wall Street Journal, January 23, B1.1.
  • McDermott, R., O'Dell, C. (2001), Overcoming culture barriers to sharing knowledge, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 76-85.
  • McLean, L. (2005), Organizational culture's influence on creativity and innovation: a review of the literature and implications for human resource development, Advances in Developing Human Resources, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 226-246.
  • Mulaik, S. (2009), Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations, Chapman & Hall, CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton.
  • Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., Sanz-Valle, R. (2011), Innovation or imitation? The role of organizational culture, Management Decision, Vol. 49, No.1, pp. 55-72. [Crossref]
  • Nystrom, P. C., Starbuck, W. (1884), To Avoid Organizational Crises, Unlearn, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 13, Spring, pp. 53-65.
  • Oliver, S., Kandadi, K. R. (2006), How to develop knowledge culture in organizations? A multiple case study of large distributed organizations, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 6-24.
  • Penrose, E. T. (1959), The Theory of Growth of the Firm, Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
  • Pérez López, S, Montes Peón, J. M., Vázquez Ordás, C. J. (2004), Managing knowledge: the link between culture and organizational learning, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 93-104.
  • Piller F. T., Walcher D. (2006), Toolkits for idea competitions: a novel method to integrate users in new product development, R&D Management, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 307-318.
  • Prahalad, C. K, Ramaswamy, V. (2004), The Future of Competition: Co-creating Unique Value with Customers, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston.
  • Rass, M., Dunbach, M., Danzinger, E., Bullinger, A. C., Moeslein, K. M. (2013), Open Innovation and Firm Performance: The Mediating Role of Social Capital, Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 177-194.
  • Riivari, E., Lämsä, A.-M., Kujala, J., Heiskanen, E. (2012), The ethical culture of organizations and organizational innovativeness, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 310-331.
  • Romme, G., Dillen, R. (1997), Mapping the landscape of organizational learning, European Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 68-78. [Crossref]
  • Ruppel, C. P., Harrington, S. J. (2002), Sharing knowledge through intranets: a study of organizational culture and intranet implementation, The IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 37-52. [Crossref]
  • Hogan, S. J., Coote, L. V. (2014), Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein's model, Journal of Business Research, No. 67, pp. 1609-1621. [Crossref]
  • Santos-Vijande, M. L. González-Mieres, C. (2013), An assessment of innovativeness in KIBS:implications on KIBS co-creatiom culture, innovation capacity, and performance, Journal of Business& Industrial Marketing, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 86-102. [Crossref]
  • Sanz-Valle., R., Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., Perez-Caballero, L. (2011), Linking organizational learning with technical innovation and organizational culture, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 997-1015.
  • Schein, E. (1992), Organizational culture and leadership, San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.
  • Schwartz, H, Davis, S. M. (1981), Matching Corporate Culture and Business Strategy, Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 30-48. [Crossref]
  • Sharifirad, M. S., Ataei, V. (2012), Organizational culture and innovation culture: exploring the relationships between constructs, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 33, No. 5, pp.494-517.
  • Simpson, P. M., Siguaw, J. A., Enz, C. A. (2006), Innovation orientation outcomes: the good and the bad, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, No. 10-11, pp. 1133-1141. [Crossref]
  • Skerlavaj, M., Hoon Song, J. (2010), Organizational culture, innovative culture and innovations in South Korean firms, Expert Systems and Applications, Vol. 37, pp. 6390-6403.
  • Slater, S., Narver, J. C. (1995), Market Orientation and the Learning Organization, The Journal of Marketing, No. 59 (July), pp. 63-74. [Crossref]
  • Slater, S. F., Mohr, J. J., Sengupta S. (2014), Radical Product Innovation Capability: Literature Review, Synthesis, and Illustrative Research Propositions, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 552-566. [Crossref]
  • Smircich, L. (1983), Concepts of Culture and Organizational Analysis, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28 (September), pp. 339-358. [Crossref]
  • Theyel, N. (2012), Extending open innovation throughout the value chain by small and medium-sized manufacturers, International Small Business Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 256-274. [Crossref]
  • Toaldo M., Didonet R., Luce, F. (2013), The influence of innovative organizational culture on marketing strategy formulation and results, Latin American Business Review, Vol. 14, pp. 251-269. [Crossref]
  • Tsai, C. T, Liao, W. F. (2014), A framework for open innovation assessment, International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 18, No. 1 pp. 1-28.
  • Van de Vrande, V., de Jong, J. P. J., Vanhaverbeke, W., de Rochemont, M. (2009), Open Innovation in SMEs: Trends, Motives and Management Challenges, Technovation, Vol. 20, pp. 423-437.
  • Van Hemert, P., Njikamp, P., Masurel, E. (2013), From innovation to commercialization through networks and agglomerations: analysis of sources of innovation, innovation capabilities and performance of Dutch SMEs, Annals of Regional Science, Springer Science & Business Media B. V., 50, pp. 425-452, DOI 10.1007/s00168-012-0509-1. [Crossref]
  • Vargo, S. L., Lusch, R. F. (2004), Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 68 (January), pp. 1-17. [Crossref]
  • Verhees, F. J. H. M., Meulenberg, M. T. G. (2004), Market Orientation, Innovativeness, Product Innovation, and Performance in Small Firms, Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 42. No. 2, pp. 143-154. [Crossref]
  • Victorino, L., Verma, R., Plaschka, G., Dev, C. (2005), Service innovation and customer choices in the hospitality industry, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 555-576.
  • von Hippel, E. (2005), Democratizing Innovation, The MIT Press, Cambridge Mass., London, England, available under Creative Commons license by Internet.
  • Watkins, M. (2013), What is Organizational Culture? And Why Should we Care? Harvard Business Review, May 15, 2013.
  • Wernerfelt, B. (1984), A resource-based view of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 171-180. [Crossref]
  • Zakaria, N., Amelinckx, A., Wilemon, D. (2004), Working Together Apart? Building a Knowledge-Sharing Culture for Global Virtual Teams, Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 15-29.
  • Zeng, S. X., Xie, X. M., Tam, C. M. (2010), Relationship between cooperation networks and innovation performance of SMEs, Technovation, No. 30, pp. 181-194.
  • Zheng, W. (2009), The knowledge-inducing culture: an integrative framework of cultural enablers of knowledge management, Journal of Information and Knowledge Management, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 213-227.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.