2016 | nr 1 (tematyczny) Przegląd emerytalny 2016 - bezpieczeństwo dzięki odpowiedzialności | 18--23
Ubezpieczenie społeczne rolników i jego perspektywy
Farmers' Social Insurance and Its Prospects
Celem artykułu jest ukazanie krótkiej historii ubezpieczeń społecznych rolników oraz ocena aktualnie istniejącego systemu i przedstawienie perspektyw jego zmian. W tekście postawiono następującą hipotezę: przesłanki historyczne i specyfika działalności rolniczej powodują, że rolnicy powinni mieć odrębny, wspierający ich system ubezpieczenia społecznego. (fragment tekstu)
Social insurance is determined by legal, institutional, financial, social and political aspects. There is a close interaction between above-mentioned features of social insurance. However, there are also some inconsistencies. It is particularly difficult to reconcile these two natures of social insurance with reference to agricultural population. This difficulty results from two factors: income and production diversification of agricultural farms and the fact that food production is a special branch. The branch without which there will not be other effects of socioeconomic life. Being both producers and purchasers of production resources, farmers function at nearly perfect markets. What is characteristic of perfect markets is the big amount of subjects that sell agriculture products as well as purchasers of resources for agricultural production. This leads to income inequality within agricultural population. Per capita income in agriculture is 25% lower than in other branches of industry. Moreover agriculture provides the society with other goods i.e. public goods. Common examples of public goods include: biodiversity, shaping the landscape and the environment. People can enjoy these goods free of charge. It makes agriculture uncompetitive compared with other branches. Therefore, in many countries food production is a protected branch of industry and this protection should also apply to food producers. The aim of this study is to present both a brief history of agricultural social insurance and the evaluation of the existing system as well as to discuss prospects of changes. Hypothesis: considering historical reasons as well as the specification of agricultural activity, farmers should have a separate and supportive system of social insurance. The system of agricultural social insurance is approximately 20% self-financed. Therefore, it is 80% financed from the state budget. This situation and these figures do not differ much from those in other countries, such as Germany - the subsidy equals 77,5%, Austria - 70% and France - 65%. The system of social insurance ZUS (The Polish Social Insurance Institution) is approximately 70% self-financed. 200 billion Polish zloty are spent every year for retirement and annuity benefits in Poland. The vast majoraty of payments i.e. 84% are those paid by ZUS. Retirement and annuity payments for agricultural population constitute slightly more than 8%. Retirement and annuity benefits paid by KRUS (The Agricultural Social Insurance Fund) are significantly lower than ones paid by ZUS. The average benefit paid by KRUS is about 60% of this paid by ZUS. The main problem with agricultural social insurance is securing the system against leakage. In other words, it is very important to guarantee that the system covers only individuals for whom agriculture is the main source of income. This problem can by solved by estimating agriculture income. Insurance regulations should contribute to improving the structure of Poland's agriculture. What I recommend is to transform the Contribution Fund into Insurance Company just like TUW (Mutual Insurance Company). It would not deal only with sickness, accident and maternity insurance but also with property insurance in agriculture. It could also be subsidied from the state budget. Moreover, the special branches of agricultural production should be redefined. (original abstract)
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