The Clash of Returns and the Politics of Difference
The sociopolitical upsurge of varied groups and movements (feminists, homosexuals, lesbians, blacks, immigrants) pushed to the margins of society and culture, voicing their claims and fighting for their rights coincides with the far from unanticipated renaissance of powerful master narratives nowadays in the West. Most minority groups that could constitute themselves and emerge as an actor on a social, cultural, or political terrain in the aftermath of the revolutionary atmosphere of the 1960s, and which continued to thrive in the following highly militant decade, had soon to face a formidable backlash from the part of conservatist forces, that - for two decades since the 1950s both in Europe and in the US having remained latent - returned to take power in the 1980s (Thatcherism, Reaganism). The decade was dominated by an alliance of conservatist forces (USA, UK, Vatican) joined in an ideological fight against the frozen enemy, the USSR. Cultural productions of that decade read as symptoms starkly demonstrate ideological undertones of that reemergence of hardboiled tradition (e.g., muscularity and body-building ideals illustrated in American mainstream pictures of action heroes) that legitimated any discrimination and law violation in the sanctified name of the higher goal, this time construed as the annihilation of the unambiguously gendered common enemy. This blatantly oedipal drama entailed incarceration of any undesired forces. The ideological joint venture of political conservatism and a religious American orthodoxy (Catholicism) effectuated and imposed socially and morally stringent restrictions that clearly excluded precisely the groups of society who now, from the main animator of a social, cultural, and political change would turn into the unwanted rebel destitute of any serious cause, threatening and castrating, necessarily sentenced to repression. (fragment of text)
- Butler, J. (1987), Subjects of Desire. New York.
- Deleuze, G. (1973), Dualism, Monism and Multiplicities (Desire-Pleasure-Jouissance). Seminar of 26 March, 1973 published in: Contretemps 2 May 2001.
- Deleuze, G. (1983), Nietzsche and Philosophy. New York.
- Deleuze, G. (1988), Bergsonism. New York.
- Deleuze, G. (1994), Difference and Repetition. New York.
- Deleuze, G., Guattari, F. (1977), Anti-Oedipus - Capitalism and Schizophrenia. New York.
- Freud, S. (1966), "The unconscious," In: The Complete Works of the Standard Edition of the Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. J. Strachey et al. London.
- Guattari, F. (1977), "Psychanalyse et politique," In: Politique et psychanalyse, ed. G. Deleuze, F. Guattari. Alençon.
- Hardt, M. (1993), Gilles Deleuze. An Apprenticeship in Philosophy. Minneapolis.
- Hegel, G. W. F. (1969), Science of Logic. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.
- Hegel, G. W. F. (1977), Phenomenology of Spirit. Oxford.
- Irigaray, L. (1990), "Women's exile. Ideology and Consciousness." In: The Feminist Critique of Language: A Reader, ed. D. Cameron. London.
- Irigaray, L. (1999), "When our lips speak together." In: J. Prince and M. Shildrick (eds). Feminist Theory and the Body. A Reader. New York.
- Lecercle, J.-J. (1985), Philosophy through the Looking-Glass: Language, Nonsense, Desire. La Salle.
- Levine, I. (1923), The Unconscious: An Introduction to Freudian Psychology. London.
- Metcalf, B., Nietzsche's Univocity, at: http://www.users.interport.net/b/m/bmetcalf.ma.ultranet/Nietzsche's%20Univocity.htm, p. 3
- Nietzsche, F. (1967), "Good and Evil, Good and Bad." In: On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo, New York.
- Nietzsche, F. (1968), "Twilight of Idols." In: Twilight of Idols and The Anti-Christ, Harmondsworth.
- Wright, E. (ed.), (1992), Feminism and Psychoanalysis. A Critical Dictionary. Entry on: Repression. Oxford-Cambridge.
- Zizek, S. (1989), The Sublime Object of Ideology. London.