An Assessment of Smoking and Non-Smoking Student Preferences for the Thai Smoking Warning Signs
The standard no smoking sign or prohibition sign which has a red circle with a red diagonal line through a cigarette picture has been used in schools, universities, as well as public places as a smoking prevention tool in Thailand since 1992. Nevertheless, statistical data indicates that the number of new smokers since 2001 to 2014 has not significantly changed and most of the smokers start this habit between the ages of 15-19 years old. This paper thereby aims to test smoker and non-smoker preference in relation to the standard, current smoking signs as well as other types of signs associated with various behavioral economic principles and psychological ideas. The basic reveal preference approach (RP) and state preference approach (SP) were used in order to test their preference, and the economic binary choices model with the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation was used to measure factors affecting the prevalence of smoking. This paper found that the majority of both smokers and non-smokers preferred Pictorial Health Warning (PHWs) signs which relates to the principle of loss aversion to other types of smoking warning sign. Basically, PHWs is used on the cigarette package which is not often seen by the non-smokers, even the smokers can prevent these PHWs by replacing cigarette packs with cigarette holder cases after buying cigarette packs. However, applying PWHs as a sign posted on school, university, and public places can, to a certain extent, make individuals more concerned about their future losses from smoking. Additionally, this paper found that males, and having friends smoking were two significant factors affecting individual smoking behavior. Finally, we hope that an application of PHWs on the smoking signs grounded on the idea of loss aversion could be further developed as another strategy preventing smoking especially for youths in schools and universities.(original abstract)
- Andreoni, J. (1988). Privately provided public goods in a large economy: the limits of altruism. Journal of Public Economics, 35(1), 57-73.
- Andreoni, J. (1990). Impure altruism and donations to public goods: A theory of warm-glow giving. The economic Journal, 100(401), 464-477.
- Banerjee, A. V. (1992). A simple model of herd behavior. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(3), 797-817.
- Bauman, K. E., Carver, K., & Gleiter, K. (2001). Trends in parent and friend influence during adolescence: the case of adolescent cigarette smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 349-361.
- Bliss, C. I., Anderson, E. O., & Marland, R. (1943). Technique for testing consumer preferences, with special reference to the constituents of ice cream, A. Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station. 34. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Connecticut.
- Buddelmeyer, H., & Wilkins, R. (2005). The effects of smoking ban regulations on individual smoking rates (IZA Discussion Paper No. 1737).
- Bundhamcharoen, K., Aungkulanon, S., Makka, N., & Shibuya, K. (2015). Economic burden from smoking-related diseases in Thailand. Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052319.
- Chuah, S.-H., & Devlin, J. (2011). Behavioural economics and financial services marketing: a review. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 29(6), 456-469.
- Colin, C., & George, L. (2004). Behavioral economics: Past, present, future: Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- DiClemente, C. C., & Prochaska, J. O. (1982). Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7(2), 133-142.
- Earp, B. D., Dill, B., Harris, J., Ackerman, J., & Bargh, J. A. (2011). Incidental exposure to no-smoking signs primes craving for cigarettes: an ironic effect of unconscious semantic processing. Yale Review of Undergraduate Research in Psychology, 2(1), 12-23.
- Earp, B. D., Dill, B., Harris, J. L., Ackerman, J. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2013). No sign of quitting: incidental exposure to "no smoking" signs ironically boosts cigarette-approach tendencies in smokers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(10), 2158-2162.
- Evans, R. I., Hansen, W. B., & Mittelmark, M. B. (1977). Increasing the validity of self-reports of behavior in a smoking in children investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 521-523.
- Fehr, E., & Schmidt, K. M. (2005). The economics of fairness, reciprocity and altruism-Experimental evidence and new theories (SFB/TR 15 Discussion Paper).
- Fisher, L. A., & Bauman, K. E. (1988). Influence and selection in the friend-adolescent relationship: findings from studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18(4), 289-314.
- Giné, X., Karlan, D., & Zinman, J. (2010). Put your money where your butt is: a commitment contract for smoking cessation. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2(4), 213-235.
- Glassman, A. H., Helzer, J. E., Covey, L. S., Cottler, L. B., Stetner, F., Tipp, J. E., & Johnson, J. (1990). Smoking, smoking cessation, and major depression. Jama, 264(12), 1546-1549.
- Hasim, T. (2000). Smoking habits of students in College of Applied Medical Science, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 21(1), 76-80.
- Hoffman, S. J., Mansoor, Y., Natt, N., Sritharan, L., Belluz, J., Caulfield, T., . . . Sharma, A. M. (2017). Celebrities' impact on health-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and status outcomes: protocol for a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression analysis. Systematic Reviews, 6(1), 13.
- Jarvis, M. J. (2004). ABC of smoking cessation: Why people smoke. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 328(7434), 277-279.
- Just, D. R. (2013). Introduction to Behavioral Economics. Wiley Global Education.
- Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 47, 263-291.
- Keser, C., & Van Winden, F. (2000). Conditional cooperation and voluntary contributions to public goods. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 102(1), 23-39.
- Klesges, R. C., Meyers, A. W., Klesges, L. M., & LaVasque, M. E. (1989). Smoking, body weight, and their effects on smoking behavior: a comprehensive review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 106(2), 204-230.
- Kolm, S.-C. (2006). Introduction to the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity. In Handbook of the economics of giving, altruism and reciprocity (1, pp. 1-122).
- La Torre, G., & Miccoli, S. (2013). Media and smoking cessation. In Smoking Prevention and Cessation (pp. 291-309). New York, NY: Springer.
- Lawless, H. T., & Heymann, H. (1999). Acceptance and preference testing. In Sensory evaluation of food (pp. 430-479). New York, NY: Springer.
- Lawless, H. T., & Heymann, H. (2010). Preference testing. In Sensory evaluation of food (pp. 303-324). New York, NY: Springer.
- Leatherdale, S. T., Cameron, R., Brown, K. S., & McDonald, P. W. (2005). Senior student smoking at school, student characteristics, and smoking onset among junior students: a multilevel analysis. Preventive Medicine, 40(6), 853-859.
- Leatherdale, S. T., Manske, S., & Kroeker, C. (2006). Sex differences in how older students influence younger student smoking behaviour. Addictive Behaviors, 31(8), 1308-1318.
- Lindbeck, A., & Weibull, J. W. (1988). Altruism and time consistency: the economics of fait accompli. Journal of Political Economy, 96(6), 1165-1182.
- Loewenstein, G., O'Donoghue, T., & Rabin, M. (2003). Projection bias in predicting future utility. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1209-1248.
- Mahidol University. (2016). Situation of tobacco consumption in Thailand in 2016 (Vol. ). Bangkok: Ministry of Public Health.
- McAlister, A. L., Krosnick, J. A., & Milburn, M. A. (1984). Causes of adolescent cigarette smoking: Tests of a structural equation model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 47(1), 24-36.
- McFall, R. M. (1970). Effects of self-monitoring on normal smoking behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35(2), 135-142.
- Naing, N. N., Ahmad, Z., Musa, R., Hamid, F. R. A., Ghazali, H., & Bakar, M. H. A. (2004). Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 2(3), 133-140.
- National Statistical Office. (2014). The smoking and drinking behaviour survey 2014. Bangkok: Social Statistics Bureau.
- Oei, T. P., & Baldwin, A. R. (1992). Smoking education and prevention: a developmental model. Journal of Drug Education, 22(2), 155-181.
- Oygard, L., KLEPP, K. I., Tell, G. S., & Vellar, O. D. (1995). Parental and peer influences on smoking among young adults: ten-year follow-up of the Oslo youth study participants. Addiction, 90(4), 561-569.
- Prelec, D., & Loewenstein, G. (1991). Decision making over time and under uncertainty: A common approach. Management Science, 37(7), 770-786.
- Sargent, J. (2006). Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents. Minerva Pediatrica, 58(1), 27-45.
- Shiller, R. J. (1995). Conversation, information, and herd behavior. The American economic review, 85(2), 181-185.
- Smoke Free School. (2014). The school is a non-smoking school according to the Thai law. Retrieved November 2, 2017, from http://www.smokefreeschool.net/media_page/207
- Stanton, W., Silva, P., & Oei, T. P. (1989). The origins and development of an addictive behaviour: a longitudinal study of smoking.
- Stanton, W. R., Currie, G. D., Oei, T. P., & Silva, P. A. (1996). A developmental approach to influences on adolescents' smoking and quitting. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 17(3), 307-319.
- Tanne, J. H. (2000). Celebrity illnesses raise awareness but can give wrong message. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 321(7269), 1099.
- Thailaws. (1992). Non-smokers' health protection act, B.E.2535 (1992) [Press release]. Retrieved from http://thailaws.com/law/t_laws/tlaw0181.pdf
- Tsai, Y.-W., Tsai, T.-I., Yang, C.-L., & Kuo, K. N. (2008). Gender differences in smoking behaviors in an Asian population. Journal of Women's Health, 17(6), 971-978.
- Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. science, 185(4157), 1124-1131.
- Varian, H. R., & Repcheck, J. (2010). Intermediate microeconomics: a modern approach (Vol. 6). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
- Viale, P. H. (2014). Celebrities and medicine: a potent combination. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 5(2), 82-84.
- Warr, P. G. (1983). The private provision of a public good is independent of the distribution of income. Economics Letters, 13(2-3), 207-211.
- Whittaker, R., Borland, R., Bullen, C., Lin, R. B., McRobbie, H., & Rodgers, A. (2009). Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane database syst Rev, 4(4).
- World Health Organization. (2010). Burden: mortality, morbidity and risk factors. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases, 2011.
- Yoo, W. (2016). The influence of celebrity exemplars on college students' smoking. Journal of American College Health, 64(1), 48-60.