Determinants of Thai Legal Professionalism: A Structural Equation Model Analysis
The purpose of the research was to examine what constitutes professionalism amongst Thai legal practitioners and consultants. By use of simple random-sampling, a sample of 332 legal professionals were surveyed by use of a 72-item, 7-level, Likert type agreement scale questionnaire on the study's four constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis was run prior to the structural equation model, with analysis undertaken by use of LISREL 9.1. The results showed that ethics was viewed as the most important aspect by Thai legal professionals (x̄ = 5.71), which was only slightly ahead of the legal consultant's experience (x̄ = 5.64). Opposite to this however, the legal consultants' themselves felt that client satisfaction (x̄ = 4.95), and quick solutions (x̄ = 4.84), had minimal importance. Overall results also showed that the latent variable of communications skills (0.67) was most important, followed by competency (0.33), and knowledge management (0.17). (original abstract)
- Ariyanuntaka, V. (2003). Thailand: legal research and legal education in Thailand. Institute of Developing Economies-Japan External Trade Organization [IDE-JETRO]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y9l7mmr3
- Bairaktarova, D., & Woodcock, A. (2017). Engineering student's ethical awareness and behavior: A new motivational model. Science and Engineering Ethics, 23(4),1129-1157.
- Barkan, S. (2009). Law and society: an introduction. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
- Barrington, L., Casner-Lotto, J., & Wright, M. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/j2c5uh6
- Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (2003). Research in education (9th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Black, N. (2017a, June 20). ABA survey: how lawyers communicate and collaborate with clients in 2017. Above the law. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y8fczf65
- Black, N. (2017b, June 15). How can law firms meet needs of 21st century legal clients? Above the law. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y86sjsw6
- Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager; a model for effective performance. New York, NY: Wiley.
- Buckler, G. (2004, April 12). Knowledge management crucial tool for law firms. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y9n56ykf
- Byrne, B. M., Shavelson, R. J., & Muthén, B. (1989). Testing for the equivalence of factor covariance and mean structures: The issue of partial measurement invariance. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 456-466. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jjxcxb6
- Casner-Lotto, J., & Barrington, L. (2006). Are they really ready to work? Employers' perspectives on the basic knowledge and applied skills of new entrants to the 21st Century U.S. workforce. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jeb85zg
- Chaimungkalanont, S. (n/d). Cross-border legal services in ASEAN under WTO: A Thai perspective. 80 - 91. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yasy6psd
- Chaitrong, W. (2017, September 26). Vested interests block meaningful reforms as government remains too vague: Banthoon. The Nation. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ybr2h2nt
- Chen, F., Curran, P. J., Bollen, K. A., Kirby, J., & Paxton, P. (2008). An empirical evaluation of the use of fixed cutoff points in RMSEA test statistic in structural equation models. Social Methods Research, 36(4), 462 - 494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049124108314720
- Cronbach, L. J. (1990). Essentials of psychological testing (5th ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers.
- Deardorff, D. K. (Ed.) (2009). The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Duff, E., Shiner, M., & Boon, A., & Whyte, A. (2000). Entry into the legal professions: the law student cohort study year 6. London, UK: The Law Society.
- European Union. (2015). 2015 Joint report of the Council and the Commission on the implementation of the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020). New priorities for European cooperation in education and training. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zctcbre
- Fan, Y., Chen, J., Shirkey, G., John, R., Wu, S. R., Park, H., & Shao, C. (2016). Applications of structural equation modeling (SEM) in ecological studies: an updated review. Ecological Processes, 5(19). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13717-016-0063-3
- Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/z8oxxub
- Francis, A. (2016). At the edge of law: Emergent and divergent models of legal professionalism. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Fukunaga, Y. (2015). Assessing the progress of ASEAN MRAs on professional services. ERIA Discussion Paper Series. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ydbw8nyn
- George, D., & Mallery, P. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference 17.0 Update (10th Ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
- Gipps, C., & Stobart, G. (2003). Alternative assessment. Vol. 2. Singapore: SAGE Publications.
- Giusti, G. (2008). Soft skills for lawyers. London, UK: Chelsea Publishing.
- Gomes, J (2001) Knowledge infrastructures in new product development. In 5th International Conference on Technology Policy and Innovation, Delft, Netherlands.
- Gunashekar, R. (2017, June 22). Closing the gender divide. Asian Legal Business. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y9g8c3la
- Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Hoelter, J. W. (1983). The analysis of covariance structures: Goodness-of-fit indices. Sociological Methods and Research, 11(3), 325 - 344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049124183011003003
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/zyd6od2
- HR in Asia. (2016, May 27). More female lawyers opt for in-house roles in Asia and Middle East. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y6wz3nwt
- Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
- Institute of Developing Economies-Japan External Trade Organization [IDE-JETRO]. (2001). Chapter 5: Legal education and training of legal profession. The Judicial System in Thailand: An Outlook for a New Century. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ybmxojpa
- International Bar Association. (2017). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y773gv69
- Jayaphorn, C. (2006). Reformation of the Thai legal system at the beginning of the 20th century: Context and origin. Thailand Law Review, 9(2). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/
- Jones, C. & Pimdee, P. (2017). Innovative ideas: Thailand 4.0 and the fourth industrial revolution. Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 17(1), 4-35.
- Jöreskog, K. G., Olsson, U. H., & Fan, Y. W. (2016). Multivariate analysis with LISREL. Berlin Germany: Germany.
- Kabene, S. M., King, P., & Skaini, N. (2006). Knowledge management in law firms. Journal of Information Law and Technology, 1, 1-21. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y88pnx4b
- Kessler, J. B. (1998). The lawyer's intercultural communication problems with clients from diverse cultures. Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business, 9(1). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y8fs8rbe
- Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
- Krairit, D-J. (n/d). ASEAN legal cross-border practice. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yac8td43
- Lambe, P. (2003). What does KM mean for law firms? Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y832abb2
- Leesa-nguansuk, S. (2017, September 22). Depa predicts e-commerce to triple to B2.1tn. Bangkok Post. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ycr36mub
- Legal Services Commission. (2017). Professional ethics and court etiquette. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y73q5v9u
- Likert, R. (1972). Likert technique for attitude measurement. In W. S. Sahakian (ed.). Social psychology: Experimentation, theory, research. Scranton, PA: Intext Educational Publishers.
- Lyman, D. & Tongmee, A. (2009, October 29). Lawyer's obligation: Confidentiality of client information in Thailand. Prepared for the New York State Bar Association International Section Seasonal Meeting in Singapore Plenary Panel D. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yd9hcfcy
- Mahakun, V., Buasri, U., Darasorn, K., & Chanpetpul, P. (2017). Ethics of the legal profession of Thailand. Social Science Asia, 3(1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y82nr739
- Maister, D. H. (2000). True professionalism: The courage to care about your people, your clients, and your career. New York, NY: Touchstone.
- Maister, D. H. (2003). Practice what you preach. What managers must do to create a high achievement culture. New York, NY: Free Press.
- Mansfield, B. (1989). Competence and standards. In: Competency Based Education and Training. Great Britain: The Falmer Press.
- Matveev, A. V. (2016). Intercultural competence in organizations: A guide for leaders, educators and team players. Berlin, Germany: Springer Publishing.
- McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for intelligence. American Psychologist, 28(1), 1 - 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034092
- Myatt, M. (2013, March 28). The most common leadership model - And why it's broken. Forbes Magazine Online. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yco7s323
- National Association of Colleges and Employers. (2015). Job Outlook 2016. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/h9773yf
- Nonaka, I. (Ed.). (2005). Knowledge management: Critical perspectives on business and management, Volume 2. New York, NY: Routledge.
- Palma, K. L. (2015). The cross-border legal practice: Thailand and the Philippines. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yd7hfhjn
- Rasch, G. (1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
- Re, E. D. (1982). The lawyer as counselor and the prevention of litigation. Catholic University Law Review, 31(4), 685 - 698. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/yb8vd4ft
- Reeve, E. M. (2016). 21st century skills needed by students in technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Asian International Journal of Social Sciences, 16(4), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.29139/aijss.20160404
- Ryan, G., Spencer, L. M., & Bernhard, U. (2012). Development and validation of a customized competency-based questionnaire: Linking social, emotional, and cognitive competencies to business unit profitability. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(1), 90-103. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601211195646
- Sathitsuksomboon, C. (2001). Thailand's legal system: Requirements, practice, and ethical conduct. Thailand Law Forum. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y74vw66p
- Shannon, M. P. (2011). Cultivating the art of effective client communications. Law Practice Magazine, 37(5). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ya9n3h89
- Sullivan, W. M., Colby, A., Wegner, J. W., Bond, L., & Shulman, L. S. (2007). Educating lawyers: Preparation for the profession of law. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Syam, P. (2014). What is the difference between common law and civil law? Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y86wxxxy
- Sydney University Law Society Careers Guide (2014). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ychqem9b
- Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd
- Thailand Lawyers Act, B.E. 2528 (1985). Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ybb2sur2
- The Economist. (2015, December 2). What is the difference between common and civil law? Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ycf5rkyf
- Triamanuruck, N., Phongpala, S., & Chaiyasuta, S. (2004). Overview of legal systems in the Asia-Pacific Region: Thailand. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ydxmczmo
- Ua-amnoey, J. (2004). Globalization and restorative justice: In the Thai criminal justice system. Thammasat Review, 9(1), 209-237. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/y7vpn4lw
- UCLA Statistical Consulting Group. (2016). Introduction to Mplus: Featuring Confirmatory factor analysis. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jekut29
- Ullman, J. B. (2001). Structural equation modeling. In B. G. Tabachnick & L. S. Fidell (Eds.). Using Multivariate Statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
- Wong, K.K-K (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/ybw7xvr3
- Zou, S., & Fu, H. (Eds.) (2011). International Marketing: Emerging Markets: Emerging Markets. UK: Emerald Group Publishing. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/jnxwjlh