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Czasopismo
2018 | nr 1 | 33--57
Tytuł artykułu

The Evolution of the Economic Man. From Homo Oeconomicus to Homo Moralis

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Ewolucja człowieka gospodarującego. Od homo oeconomicus do homo moralis
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
Celem artykułu jest analiza koncepcji homo oeconomicus, będącej jednym z podstawowych fundamentów ekonomii głównego nurtu w porównaniu do alternatywnych podejść, zaprezentowanych przez przedstawicieli ekonomii heterodoksyjnej, m.in. ekonomii behawioralnej i neuroekonomii. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na model REMM (Resourceful, Evaluative, Maximising Man), który wydaje się być brakującym ogniwem pomiędzy homo oeconomicus i homo moralis. Przyjęto jednocześnie, że wąska interpretacja homo oeconomicus, kierującego się własnym interesem, stanowi zbyt duże uproszczenie i taki paradygmat w realnym świecie może być szkodliwy dla społeczeństwa. Artykuł ma charakter przeglądowy i został napisany na podstawie literatury przedmiotu, w tym materiałów źródłowych. W badaniach wykorzystano podejście zarówno deskryptywne, jak i interdyscyplinarne. W wyniku przeprowadzonej analizy sformułowano wniosek, że wyjaśnienie ekonomicznych zachowań człowieka wymaga bardziej holistycznego i dynamicznego ujęcia. Wskazano na niekompletność i nieadekwatność paradygmatu homo oeconomicus w stosunku do rzeczywistości. Zauważono, że racjonalność człowieka ekonomicznego wynika nie tylko z troski o własny interes, ale również z jego zakorzenienia w społeczeństwie i kulturze. Badanie pokazało, że zachowanie ekonomiczne zależy od kontekstu i jest dodatkowo zdeterminowane przez moralność, która wywodzi się z systemów społecznych i religijnych. W konkluzji stwierdzono, że człowiek gospodarujący nie może być zredukowany wyłącznie do maszyny koncentrującej się jedynie na swoim własnym interesie materialnym. Ocena moralna jednostki podejmującej decyzje w świecie ograniczoności zasobów jest nieunikniona. (abstrakt oryginalny)
EN
This article traces the development of the concept of homo oeconomicus, a fundamental principle of mainstream economics. The concept is compared against alternative approaches proposed by representatives of other schools of thought such as heterodox economics, behavioural economics and neuroeconomics. Special attention is paid to the Resourceful, Evaluative, Maximising Man (REMM) model, which seems to be a missing link between homo oeconomicus and homo moralis. It is simultaneously assumed that the narrow interpretation of homo oeconomicus as a being solely guided by self-interest is oversimplified and that this kind of paradigm may be harmful to society in the real world. The article was written on the basis of a content analysis of literature. For the purposes of the research, both descriptive and interdisciplinary methods were employed. As a result of the conducted analysis, a conclusion was drawn that the explanation of economic behaviours requires a more holistic and dynamic approach. The incompleteness and inadequacy of the paradigm of homo oeconomicus were highlighted. It was noted that the rationality of the economic man results not only from concern for self-interest but also from his embeddedness in society and culture. The study showed that economic behaviour is context-dependent and additionally determined by morality derived from social and religious systems. In conclusion, it was emphasised that the economic man cannot be reduced to a machine concentrating on his own material well-being. The morality of an individual making choices in a world of scarcity is inevitably subject to assessment. (original abstract)
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Numer
Strony
33--57
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
  • University of Bialystok, Poland
  • University of Bialystok, Poland
  • University of Bialystok, Poland
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Bibliografia
Identyfikator YADDA
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