PL EN


Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
2017 | 6 | nr 2 | 69--102
Tytuł artykułu

Detention of Minors in EU Return Procedures: Assessing the Extent to Which Polish Law Is Reflective of the EU Migration Regime and International Human Rights Standards

Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The Return Directive allows for the detention of minors during removal proceedings, but only as a 'last resort', for 'the shortest appropriate period of time' and with the primary consideration of the 'best interests of the child'. While the Directive attempted to provide some safeguards to minors, these are undermined throughout, as the enforcement of such provisions depends significantly on their incorporation into domestic law. I provide an overview of the EU detention policy, map the existing domestic law framework in light of the benchmarks set out by the Directive and human rights instruments, and argue that there is a lack of consistency in the case study of Poland. In doing so, I analyse the limitations to detaining minors in light of the human rights treaties, of the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights, and of the role of the monitoring body - the Committee on the Rights of the Child. In discussing the different types of jurisprudence, I illustrate how different bodies speak with the same voice on the detention of minors. Based on these findings I attempt to contribute to the policy debate on how to reconcile and balance the implications of two policy objectives affecting irregular migrant children - the protection of minors and immigration enforcement. I identify detention policy aspects, for which the legislation should be further harmonised, and I develop models of good practices based on other Member States' practices, thus providing a set of policy recommendations to the Polish legislator as to what fair and effective irregular migration governance might entail. (original abstract)
Rocznik
Tom
6
Numer
Strony
69--102
Opis fizyczny
Twórcy
  • University of Bristol Law School
Bibliografia
  • Alston P., Gilmour-Walsh B. (1996). The Best Interests of the Child. Synthesis of Children's Rights and Cultural Values. Florence: UNICEF.
  • Association for Legal Intervention (2014). Analysis of Regulations Regarding Detention Measures on the Children of Foreigners in the Republic of Poland. Warsaw: Association for Legal Intervention.
  • Bloomfield A. (2016). Alternatives to Detention at a Crossroads: Humanisation or Criminalisation? Refugee Survey Quarterly 35(1): 29-46.
  • Carrera S., Merlino M. (2010). Assessing EU Policy on Irregular Immigration Under the Stockholm Programme. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.
  • Cherti M., Szilard M. (2013). Returning Irregular Immigrants - How Effective is the EU's Response? London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Online: http://www.ippr.org/files/images/media/files/publication/2013/02/returni... (accessed: 15 June 2015).
  • Child Rights International Network (2012). Poland: Children's Rights References in the Universal Periodic Review (Second Cycle). Online: https://www.crin.org/en/library/publications/poland-childrens-rights-ref... (accessed: 5 August 2015).
  • Chlebny J. (2013). Standards of the Provisional Protection Against Expulsion, speech delivered at the seminar organised on the occasion of the publication of the Handbook on European Law relating to asylum, borders and immigration, Strasbourg, 11 June 2013.
  • Chlebny J. (ed.) (2015). Ustawa o cudzoziemcach. Komentarz. 1st edition. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo C. H. Beck.
  • COE, ECtHR (Council of Europe, European Court of Human Rights) (2014). Guide of Article 5 of the Convention - Right to Liberty and Security. Online: http://www.echr.coe.int/documents/guide_art_5_eng.pdf (accessed: 11 November 2016).
  • Commissioner for Human Rights (2007). The Human Rights of Irregular Migrants in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Online: http://insanhaklarimerkezi.bilgi.edu.tr/media/uploads/2015/07/31/Olagand... (accessed: 6 January 2017).
  • Council of Europe (2015). Migration and Human Rights - Homepage. Online: http://www.coe.int/t/democracy/migration/ (accessed: 22 August 2015).
  • Council of the European Union (1995). Council Resolution of 29 June 1995 on the Effective Uniform Application of Community Law and on the Penalties Applicable for Breaches of Community Law in the Internal Market. Brussels, 1995, 95/C 188/01.
  • Cornelisse G. (2010). Immigration Detention and Human Rights: Rethinking Territorial Sovereignty. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2005). General Comment No. 6. Treatment of Unaccompanied and Separated Children Outside Their Country of Origin. UN Doc. CRC/GC/2005/6.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2007). General Comment No. 10. Children's Rights in Juvenile Justice. UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/10.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2011). General Comment No. 13. The Right of the Child to Freedom from All Forms of Violence. UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/13.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2012). Background Paper: The Rights of All Children in the Context of International Migration. Online: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/CRC/Discussions/2012/2012DGDBack... (accessed: 22 August 2015).
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2013). General Comment No. 17. The Right of the Child to Rest, Leisure, Play, Recreational Activities, Cultural Life and the Arts (Article 31). UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/17.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2014). General Comment No. 14. The Right of the Child to Have His or Her Best Interests Taken As a Primary Consideration (Art. 3, Para. 1). UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/14.
  • CRC (Committee on the Rights of the Child) (2015). List of Issues in Relation to the Third and Fourth Periodic Reports of Poland. UN Doc. CRC/C/POL/Q/3-4.
  • Crépeau F. (2012). Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants. Online: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session... (accessed: 13 November 2016).
  • Dąbrowski P, Stefańska R. (2014). Changes in Polish Migration Policy in years 2011-2012, in: P. Kaczmarczyk (ed.), Recent Trends in International Migration in Poland. The 2012 SOPEMI Report. CMR Working Papers 71/129: Warsaw: Centre for Migration Research, University of Warsaw.
  • De Bruycker P., Tsourdi E. (2016). The Challenge of Asylum Detention to Refugee Protection. Refugee Survey Quarterly 35(1): 1-6.
  • Directorate-General of Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission (2015). Return Handbook. Brussels: EC.
  • Directorate-General of Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission (2016). Return & Readmission. Online: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/irregular-migra... (accessed: 12 November 2016).
  • EC (European Commission) (2009). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on Guidance for Better Transposition and Application of Directive 2004/38/EC on the Right of Citizens of the Union and Their Family Members to Move and Reside Freely Within the Territory of the Member States. Brussels, 2.7.2009, COM (2009) 313 final.
  • EC (2010). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council, Action Plan on Unaccompanied Minors (2010-2014). Brussels, 06.05.2010, 213 final.
  • EC (European Commission) (2011). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, An EU Agenda for the Rights of the Child. Brussels, 15.2.2011, COM (2011) 60 final.
  • EC (European Commission) (2014). Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on EU Return Policy. Brussels, 28.03.2014, COM (2014) 199 final.
  • EC (European Commission) (2015). CONTACT GROUP 'Return Directive' (2008/115/EC) 14 October 2014: Preparation of Return Handbook. Brussels: EC.
  • EU Network of Independent Experts of Fundamental Rights (2006). Commentary of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.
  • Eurostat (2016). Statistics on Enforcement of Immigration Legislation - Statistics Explained. Online: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Statistics_o... (accessed: 12 November 2016).
  • Ferraro F., Carmona J. (2015). Fundamental Rights in the European Union: The Role of the Charter After the Lisbon Treaty. Brussels: European Parliamentary Research Service.
  • Garde A. (2012). The Best Interests of the Child and EU Consumer Law and Policy: A Major Gap Between Theory and Practice?, in: J. Devenney, M. Kenny (eds), European Consumer Protection: Theory and Practice, pp.164-200. 1st edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Global Detention Project (2015). The Uncounted: Detention of Migrants and Asylum Seekers in Europe. 1st edition. Online: https://www.globaldetentionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/The-Un... (accessed: 6 November 2016).
  • Greer S. (2000). The Margin of Appreciation. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Hatzis N. (2013). Detention of Irregular Migrants and the European Public Order. European Law Review 38(2): 259-276.
  • Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (2012a). Detention of Migrant Children Must Be Put to Stop, Say NGOs. Online: http://www.hfhr.pl/en/stop-detencji-dzieci-migrantow/ (accessed: 16 June 2015).
  • Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (2012b). Helsinki Foundation's for Human Rights (Poland) - Submission to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants Concerning His Report on the Issue Immigration Detention. Online: http://www.hfhrpol.waw.pl/uchodzcy/images/stories/file/migrant detenti... (accessed: 13 August 2015).
  • Home Office (2016). Enforcement Instructions and Guidance: Chapter 55. Online: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/fil... (accessed: 13 November 2016).
  • House of Lords - European Union Community (2016). 2nd Report of Session 2016-17 - Children in Crisis: Unaccompanied Migrant Children in the EU. Online: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld201617/ldselect/ldeucom/34/34... (accessed: 14 November 2016).
  • Human Rights Council (2012). Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Poland. Online: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session... (accessed: 1 September 2015).
  • ICHR (Inter-American Court of Human Rights) (2014). Rights and Guarantees of Children in the Context of Migration and/or in Need of International Protection. Online: http://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/opiniones/resumen_seriea_21_eng.pdf (accessed: 1 September 2015).
  • Invernizzi A., Williams J. (2011). The Human Rights of Children. Burlington, Vt.: Ashgate Publishing.
  • IOM (International Organisation for Migration) (2004). International Migration Law - Glossary on Migration. 1st edition. Geneva: IOM.
  • IPECL, ILO (International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, International Labour Organisation) (2010). Migration and Child Labour - Exploring Child Migrant Vulnerabilities and Those of Children Left-Behind. Geneva: IPEC, ILO.
  • Ippolito F., Iglesias Sánchez S. (2015). Protecting Vulnerable Groups. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • Lamont R. (2014). Article 24 - The Rights of the Child, in: S. Peers, T. Hervey, J. Kenner, A. Ward (eds), The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights: A Commentary, pp. 661-692. 1st edition. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • MI (Ministry of the Interior, Migration Policy Department) (2014). Stosowanie detencji oraz środków alternatywnych do detencji w kontekście polityki imigracyjnej w Polsce. Online: https://emn.gov.pl/esm/publikacje/nasze-publikacje/stosowanie-detencji-ora (accessed: 30 June 2015).
  • Nykanen E. (2012). Fragmented State Power and Forced Migration. Leiden: BRILL.
  • OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights) (2013). Committee Against Torture Considers Report of Poland. Online: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=13929&L... (accessed: 22 August 2015).
  • O'Neill A. (n.d.). Social Rights in the Charter: Employment and Social Security. Online: http://www.era-comm.eu/charter_of_fundamental_rights/kiosk/pdf/01_SOCIAL... (accessed: 12 May 2017).
  • O'Nions H. (2008). No Right to Liberty: The Detention of Asylum Seekers for Administrative Convenience. European Journal of Migration and Law 10(2): 149-185.
  • Ost F. (1992). The Original Canons of Interpretation of the European Court of Human Rights, in: M. Delmas-Marty, C. Chodkiewicz (eds), The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights: International Protection Versus National Restrictions, pp. 283-317. 1st edition. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Ouald Chaib S., Brems E. (2011). Doing Minority Justice Through Procedural Fairness: Face Veil Bans in Europe. Journal of Muslims in Europe 2(1): 20-45.
  • Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2010). Detention of Asylum Seekers and Irregular Migrants in Europe. Online: http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17813&la... (accessed: 6 October 2016).
  • Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (2014). The Alternatives to Immigration Detention of Children. Online: http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/X2H-Xref-ViewPDF.asp?FileID=21295 (accessed: 7 August 2015).
  • Pétin J. (2016). Exploring the Role of Vulnerability in Immigration Detention. Refugee Survey Quarterly 35(1): 91-108.
  • PICUM (Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants) (2014). Stakeholders' Consultation on Remedies and Procedures on the Right to Challenge the Lawfulness of Detention Before Court. Geneva: PICUM.
  • Save the Children (2016). Alone in Europe: Why the EU and UK Government Must Do More to Protect the Most Vulnerable Children in Europe. Online: http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidence... (accessed: 14 November 2016).
  • Sieniow T. (2016). Stosowanie alternatyw do detencji cudzoziemców w Polsce w latach 2014-2015. Raport z monitoringu. 1st edition. Lublin: Instytut na Rzecz Państwa Prawa.
  • Stalford H. (2012). Children and the European Union: Rights, Welfare and Accountability. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • UN (United Nations) (2010). Guidelines for the Alternative Care of Children. Online: http://www.unicef.org/protection/alternative_care_Guidelines-English.pdf (accessed: 1 September 2015).
  • UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) (2012). Detention Guidelines - Guidelines on the Applicable Criteria and Standards Relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Alternatives to Detention. Online: http://www.unhcr.org/505b10ee9.pdf (accessed: 13 November 2016).
  • UNHRC (United Nations Human Rights Council) (2009). Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention. Online: https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G09/107/13/PDF/G0910713.pdf Element (accessed: 13 November 2016).
  • UNICEF, OHCHR (United Nations Children's Fund, The United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner) (2012). Judicial Implementation of Article 3 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in Europe - The Case of Migrant Children Including Unaccompanied Children. Geneva: UNICEF, OHCHR.
  • Van Bueren G. (2007). Child Rights in Europe. Brussels: Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Vries S., Bernitz U., Weatherill S. (2013). The Protection of Fundamental Rights in the EU After Lisbon. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
  • Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (2010). Annual Report of 15 January 2010. UN Doc. A/HCR/13/30.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikatory
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.ekon-element-000171525503

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Zgłoszenie zostało wysłane

Musisz być zalogowany aby pisać komentarze.
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.